Thursday, May 21, 2020

Apple Inc. - Managing a Global Supply Chain - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2625 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2019/08/16 Category Business Essay Level High school Tags: Apple Inc Essay Did you like this example? Executive Summary An analyst for a money management company based in Toronto, BXE Capital (BXE), was studying Apple Inc. as one of the companys main investments. Apple had a market capitalization of nearly USD 500 billion and sales of USD 171 billion in 2013. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Apple Inc. Managing a Global Supply Chain" essay for you Create order According to the research company, Gartner Group, it had the best supply chain in the world, ranking ahead of firms such as Amazon, Zara and Walmart. As a part of the analysis, a full review of the supply chain of Apple Inc.s is required to look for insight into the future performance of the company for deciding whether the analyst company should continue to hold the shares of Apple Inc. Introduction Apple Inc. was established by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne in 1976. In the summer of 1976, Ronald Wayne had left the company, but Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak launched the first of many trendsetting products to be developed and released, Apple 1 Computer. While under John Sculleys leadership, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak left Apple in 1985. However, Steve Jobs returned in 1997 and became CEO, taking control of Apple Inc. and bringing the company back from near bankruptcy to profitability by 1998. Under the legendary leadership of the late Steve Jobs, the Apple Inc. brand was successfully rebuilt and become one of the most innovative companies in the world today and has a large loyal customer base. Just after Steve Jobs returned, Tim Cook (a world-renowned supply chain expert) joined Apple Inc. in 1998, who helped transform Apple Inc.s messy operations into a global supply chain success and credited with streamlining Apples supply chain, helping create the most powerful supply chain in the world. Apple Inc. is one of the world leaders in innovation today, product design and development, marketing and branding, software ecosystems, products and services. It sells products through its retail stores, online stores, direct sales force, third-party cellular network carriers, wholesalers, and retailers. It also sells digital content and apps through the iTunes Store. Apple Inc. has evolved into the Most Valuable Brand in the world today. The Differences set Apple Inc. Apart From its Competitors There are several main aspects set Apple Inc. apart from its competitors (see as below): AppleCompetitors Adopting Air-Freight as a more efficient methodAdopting cheaper transportation methods such as Sea-Freight Adopting Intermediate Warehouse at Fedex and UPS for reducing customers waiting time. N/A Keeping the close relationship with global suppliers. Strictly treating suppliers, and attempting to reduce their price Maintaining Just-in-Time supply chain. Focusing on cost and selecting the lowest price suppliers. Apple Inc.s Key Advantages in Manages its Supply Chain Operations Real-time coordination of supply chain Comparing to the life-cycle of traditional product which spans over four to five years, iPhone as an innovative product, Apple Inc.s management team kept the lifecycle closer to only one year on average. For supporting the short product development cycle, Apple Inc. adopts a Just-in-time supply chain to coordinate with the production on a real-time basis. Controlling internally the entire supply chain For developing new products, many stakeholders are involved in the processes of development. Apple Inc. typically handles much of the engineering works involved in getting a product made in large numbers by partnering with contract manufacturers. Engineers often spend weeks at facilities in Asia to make sure the equipment and spare parts are properly operating. With data sharing, Apple Inc.s procurement team also keep closely controlling its upstream suppliers. Unlike other competitors simply outsource the manufacturing to the third-party service providers, Apple Inc. would rather internally control its entire supply chain. The close relationship with suppliers Apple Inc. closely works and builds a close relationship with the contract manufacturers. Its designers closely work with suppliers for helping translate prototypes into mass-produced devices. Furthermore, Apple Inc. continually shares its demand forecasting information to suppliers starting from 150 days in advance of the product launch for allowing adjustment in production schedules and meet the sudden spikes in orders. A well-known example is that within 96 hours, Foxconn produced over 10,000 iPhones a day because of the Apples redesign of screens at the last minute. Highly integration with centralized Research Development Technology firms commonly separate the Research Development department and separate the profit and loss accountability for each product segment. However, Apple Inc. highly integrated the Research Development department as well as the profit and loss accountability to the entire company. All people within the company are responsible for the products success. Pre-purchased capacity Many competitors used the same components as the key parts from a single supplier, so it is common for the components to be out of stock during overwhelming demand. Apple Inc. then starts to pre-purchase suppliers production capacity for ensuring a steady supply of the key parts from suppliers. Moreover, the pre-purchase strategy also adapts to the logistics arrangement. Apple Inc. found that it is costly for the backlog of orders and hence they start adopting air-freight for transportation while other competitors rely exclusively on shipments by sea-freight. Apple Inc.s pre-purchased is available holiday air-freight for ensuring delivery available during holiday sales rush. This also adds the benefit of shutting out rivals. Global operation Apple Inc. divides its products production in different countries. Some processes of production require labor-intensive operation with complex quality control processes. Other countries can provide resources that the U.S is limited. An estimation from Apple Inc. for manufacturing iPhone reviewed which China took fifteen days to find qualified industrial engineers while in the U.S may take as long as nine months. Lightly investing on fixed cost According to Apple Inc.s financial report, asset and inventorys return is high. This has resulted from the lightly fixed cost investment strategy. As low fixed cost need to spread over a high volume, the manufacturing cost of Apple Inc. account larger portion on variable cost. Apple Inc. strategically emphasizes on variable cost which only goes up when sales volume increase. Apple Inc. uses third-parties logistics services and outsources its production for achieving light assets investment. Forward Integration Despite adopting retail partners to distribute its products, Apple Inc. also operates its own stores in high-traffic location as well as the online stores. Over 70% of products and services are sold directly to businesses and consumers by Apple Inc. itself. The limited products configuration Apple Inc.s products are famous for its limited configuration. It restricted the design and configurations of its products, and iOS is designed with less customization setting to provide a more user-friendly experience. With the limited number of configurations, Apple Inc. can streamline the process of the supply chain. Effective reverse logistics function Apple Inc. developed an effective reverse logistic function for enhancing customers post-purchase experience. Consumers are allowed to input the defects online and the system would automatically retrieve purchase information by the serial number. Apple Inc. provides responsive service for product return by sending pre-addressed, pre-stamped box sent through express parcel service to collect the defective product. Apple Inc.s reverse logistic function greatly improved customer satisfaction, lowered the number of calls to its technical support service and eliminate the likelihood of customer error when processing a return. Intense customer education Apple Inc. operates self-own retail outlets not only capture more sales but relies heavily on its retail stores for providing customer education. Apple Inc. gives product training and educates customers on their product usage. 12.Emphasizing brand management Apple Inc. business model focuses on innovation and new product development. With various marketing strategies and customer education, Apple Inc. advertises the lifestyle it created other than the actual functionality of its products. This helps to create a strong brand loyalty. The Challenges Apple Inc. Faces in the Future the Implications for it Supply Chain Developing the overwhelming new products In recent years, Apple Inc. is having a difficult time to develop overwhelming new products. It has been putting a lot of effort to improve and integrate its existing products such as iPhones, Mac Books, iPads, Apple Watches etc. Apple Inc. has been innovating its products and fittings for every version, but the market has the higher expectation than simply a slight improvement on the internal configuration of its products. The consumers or users are expecting technological breakthrough new major products. Apart from this, the sales growth is slowing down, and the declining rate is high until the next model has been ready. This indicates that the consumers or users have gradually lost interests in Apple Inc.s product. The implication for Apple Inc.s Supply Chain The products of Apple Inc. have been known for making by assembling numerous components produced by a lot of different suppliers. Developing new products implicates a large sum of new components are required in its production which makes Apple Inc.s supply chain network more extensive and its management more complex. Apple Inc. also needs to invest more in its research and development and reverse logistics system. Therefore, Apple Inc. can do better in product management and address the new or latent demand for their consumers by reviewing the old returned products. Apart from this, Apple Inc. can introduce the new customized products or new features also for existing products which give the market a new surprise. Keeping sustainable relationships with existing or new suppliers Apple Inc. will be facing a challenge in keeping sustainable relationships with existing or new suppliers. Apple Inc. secures its components supply for meeting the high demand in the market by buying a large volume of components from its suppliers with a huge amount of pre-payment. The largely committed manufacturing capacity which occupied a large part of the businesses of its suppliers. This leads suppliers to receive orders from other customers with difficulty. Therefore, suppliers have been dependent on Apple Inc. for earning profits. Suppliers also have high pressure to get components done with Just-In-Time manufacturing in prepayment. Realizing slim profit gain from Apple Inc. orders with the above disadvantages, Apple Inc.s existing or potential suppliers tend to change their attitudes and some even consider declining Apple Inc. orders for maintaining their independence. The case also mentioned a key part manufac turing refused huge prepayment from Apple Inc. for providing largely committed manufacturing capacity. The implication for Apple Inc.s Supply Chain As some suppliers stop renewing the contract with Apple Inc. because of all the cooperation shortcoming and hardship. Therefore, Apple Inc. has to spend extra money on searching and scanning for new suitable suppliers. The potential suppliers might also hang back when realizing the drawbacks to receive orders from Apple Inc., which decreases Apple Inc.s choices on choosing suppliers. Therefore, Apple Inc. might need to offer a higher pre-payment or new payment methods for suppliers in producing unique components for its products. This might lead to higher production cost and affect the supply chains total profitability. Maintaining the reputation Apple Inc. has been accused of co-operating with sweatshops in its upstream supply chain because of its just-in-time manufacturing and sudden orders or change requirements, the assembler or manufacturer serve Apple Inc. might require their workers to work overtime for meeting the needs of Apple Inc. The case mentioned that workers had to continuously work twelve hours or Foxconns workers had been required to wake up at midnight for work. The implication for Apple Inc.s Supply Chain These ethical issues make Apple Inc.s reputation as it does not have strict monitoring on their partners for producing products. The workers might strike for fighting better benefits and compensations by long-term exploitation. This will lead to production disruption and affect Apple Incs just-in-time manufacturing with a tight schedule. This might increase both cost and the lead time for products. Staying as the market leader in the aggressive competition In recent years, the smartphone industry has rapidly been developing, many competitors catch with innovation at a fast speed (such as Huawei, Samsung, etc.). It is important for Apple Inc. to keep its first-mover advantage and keep putting efforts in innovating. Those who use Android phones have dramatically increased. According to the report presented by IDC in November 2016, the market share of Android phones has occupied nearly 85%, but the iOS phone has only occupied nearly 15%. As consumers have easily shifted to other brands under the market with aggressive competition, therefore, Apple Inc. has to put more efforts to keep its position as the market leader. The implication for Apple Inc.s Supply Chain Apple Inc. has to invest heavily in research and development of its products in its supply chain and places a good balance on stock and production for dealing with the impacts brought by the greater demand fluctuation on i ts JIT system. Apart from this, Apple Inc. also needs to consider the market segmentation that it not only produces high-end products but also low-end products in order to meet the customers needs. PeriodiOSAndroidWindows PhoneOthers 2016 Q115.40%83.40%0.80%0.40% 2016 Q211.70%87.60%0.40%0.30% 2016 Q312.50%86.80%0.30%0.40% 2016 Q418.20%81.40%0.20%0.20% 2017 Q114.70%85.00%0.10%0.10% Source: IDC, May 2017 5.Minimizing the cost of production Although Apple Inc. has performed well on cost-controlling for its production, it still has a higher cost of production when comparing to its competitors (such as Huawei, Samsung, etc.). As the market for the smartphone has been mature, smartphone producers not only compete on innovation but cost as well. Apart from these, the cost of production and selling price of iPhones has generally been higher than competitors, therefore, squeezing cost will be a big challenge for Apple Inc. The implication for Apples Supply Chain When there is a need for cutting cost, it implicates that there is a need to cut procurement cost and streamline processes. Therefore, it is necessary for Apple Inc. to improve its supply chain organization to minimize cost. For further reducing the cost of ordering and transportation, it is necessary for Apple Inc. to regularly review its procurement strategies and transportation model. Conclusions Recommendations As Jessica Grant, I would suggest the companys vice-president Philip Duchene that Apple Inc. could adjust the shareholding depends on certain factors which could be Apple Inc.s niche product offerings with a huge market share and its stron g brand name due to the increased investment. For the factors of decreasing investment, they could be the uncertain development of new key products, unstable relationship with its manufacturer and fluctuating costs. In the strong brand name, Apple Inc. keeps offering consumers the superior quality of buying experience in retail stores. The experienced talents in stores can provide quality services and knowledge to consumers. Furthermore, Apple Inc.s services after selling can increase customers loyalty. For the China market, Apple Inc.s products increased by the demographic demand. Apple Inc. can save the costs of production and achieve better profits by locating the factories in China. Although there is uncertainty for developing new product lines, Apple Inc is the market leader in terms of research and development. Therefore, it is worth for BXE to invest more in Apple Inc. For BXE to decrease concerns of shareholding, Apple Inc.s intention to capture a wider target market segment. Apple Inc. respectively introduced iPhone 5C and iPhone SE in 2013 and 2016. These lower prices products attracted more customers who have a limited budget. Although Apple Inc. does not have distinct competitive adv antages in the economic smartphone market when comparing with Xiaom, some magazines or reports in the market about smartphones show that the ratings of iPhone SE were mostly similar or worse than Xiaomis Redmi Note 3. Thus, BXE might need to consider about it when adjusting the portfolio in investment. Bibliography Apple Inc.: Managing A Global Supply Chain (2017), Published by Ivey, 9B13D005. Nigel Slack, Alistair Brandon-Jones, Robert Johnston (2011), Essentials of Operations Management, 1st Edition, Pearson Education Limited.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of Zora Neale Hurston s The Eyes Were Watching...

Intersectionality is the study of identity that looks at how different aspects of identity intersect with each other to form specific and differing experiences of oppression. Zora Neale Hurston deals with the intersection of race and gender through the story of Janie in Their Eyes Were Watching God. However, rather than seeing the way in which Hurston deals with this intersection, the author Richard Wright claims, â€Å"The sensory sweep of her novel carries no theme, no message, no thought. In the main, her novel is not addressed to the Negro, but to a white audience whose chauvinistic tastes she knows how to satisfy.† While Wright is correct in suggesting that Hurston’s focus is not on race, but rather gender, he is incorrect in suggesting her novel has no purpose and is created simply to be entertainment for white readers. Wright’s own writing focuses entirely on race through a sociological lens that uses women’s dead bodies as objects in order to make arguments about race, and this is why Wright is unable to see the value of Hurston’s novel which focuses heavily on gendered oppression. Analysis of Zora Neal Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God will show that the novel has tremendous worth in how it addresses the intersection of race and gender proving incorrect Wright, whose own writing will clarify that his views on writing make him unable to see the worth of Hurston’s work. Understanding the message that Hurston aims to convey to the reader will clarify how differentShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Zora Neale Hurston s Their Eyes Were Watching God1429 Words   |  6 Pagesthreatened by the undermining of their power, and one of these men committed a heinous act in order to suppress efforts to achieve equal rights for women. 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Scott Fitzgerald, Zora Neale Hurston, And August Wilson14 18 Words   |  6 PagesThis literary study will define the failure of the †American Dream† in the writings of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Arthur Miller, Zora Neale Hurston, and August Wilson. Fitzgerald’s account of the Jay Gatsby s rise to fame in the 1920s defines the failure of financial success as part of the American Dream. Gatsby will eventually die due to his excessive greed, which is not unlike the emotional death of Willy Loman as he fails to become a successful salesman in Author Miller’s Death of a Salesman. MoreRead MoreTheir Eyes Were Watching God- Janies Self Realization2063 Words   |  9 PagesTheir Eyes were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston, was a unique individual; as a half-white, half-black girl growing up in Florida in the early 1930s, a lifetime of trials and search for understanding was set for her from the start. As the main character she sought to finally find herself, true love, and have a meaningful life. Growing up, in itself, pro vides a perfect opportunity for finding that essential state of self-realization and ideal comfort. Michael G. Cooke reviews Their Eyes Were Watching

Sexual Harassment in Global Human Resource Management Free Essays

â€Å"Sexual Harassment has been pointed out as the most increasing, widespread problem faced by women in the workforce (Kadue Lindeman, 1997). † Therefore, I will write to you about what sexual harassment is and what constitutes it, where the United States and other countries stand on this issue (the global view), types of sexual harassment, how to identify it, major problems related to sexual harassment, disciplinary actions the offender may face, and affects sexual harassment may have on the victim. Sexual Harassment is defined as unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors or other verbal or physical conduct that is of a sexual nature. We will write a custom essay sample on Sexual Harassment in Global Human Resource Management or any similar topic only for you Order Now â€Å"Women bring about 85 percent of all sexual harassment charges (Scarborough Zimmerer, 2006). † â€Å"A recent study found that retaliation claims occur in 47 percent of sexual harassment cases (Scarborough Zimmerer, 2006). Following are a few items that constitute sexual harassment: submitting to or rejecting conduct is an explicit or implicit term or condition of employment; submitting to or rejecting the conduct is a basis for employment decisions affecting the individual; the conduct unreasonably interferes with an individuals work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive working environment (Fisher, Schoenfeldt, Shaw, 1999). In the past, the things that constituted sexual harassment were very vague. Due to this, when attorneys were in pursuit of their evidence, they had to be very aggressive. The behaviors associated with sexual harassment include threats or coercion which are linked to tangible job benefits and/ or those which involve unwanted gestures, unwanted touching or physical contact (Backstrom McDonald, 2008). † Looking at sexual harassment globally, cultures differ in the type of behavior that is acceptable between the sexes and there seems to be considerable possibility of misunderstanding when employees of diverse cultures and genders meet in the workplace (Hardman, Heidelberg and Talbot, 1996). Behavior that Americans consider unacceptable is likely to occur in countries where the sexes are not equal under the law in society (Hardman et al. , 1996). † There are just a few countries that have laws against sexual harassment. â€Å"As of 1992, only Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, and the United States had regulations in place (Hardman et al. , 1996). † â€Å"One of the things mitigating the workplace approach to harassment in Germany was the structure of labor relations (Dobbin, 2006). â€Å"There the industrial relations system was collaborative rat her than top-down, which meant that directives have to be worked out at the level of workplace Works Council (Dobbins, 2006). † In America’s legal system, companies banned flirting and office romance because they were concerned about the courts banning them. â€Å"The French saw excessive Puritanism in the American approach, and so French feminists first won a law with a limited definition of harassment as abuse of power by someone in an official capacity (Dobbins, 2006)†. France made a 2002 revision of the law that made sexual harassment equal to moral harassment and violence, but they didn’t do it by inheriting American ideas. France separated harassment from Puritanism and then connected it with other types of psychological violence. â€Å"Employees in Germany and Italy do not necessarily have to have cause to fire employees who engage in sexual harassment, even if employees violate company policy (Maatman, 2000). † â€Å"Employers who terminate harassers may be forced to pay them termination indemnities (Maatman, 2000). â€Å"In Spain and Thailand, labor law concepts based on termination indemnity provisions allow employees to terminate their employment relationships due to sexual harassment. In turn, termination indemnity laws require employers to pay employees substantial severance pay if the cause of their termination is sexual harassment (Maatman, 2000). † â€Å"Venezuelan law prohibits sexual harassment by virtue of enac tment of the Law on Violence against Women and Family. The new law establishes the crime of sexual harassment, as well as penalties for its violation (Maatman, 2000). The crime that someone might serve for sexual harassment is three to 12 months in prison. Also, the offender has to pay the victim double the amount of accumulative damage that caused the sexual harassment along with access to positions and promotions. Employers are held responsible for monetary penalties; individual supervisors could go to jail. â€Å"Executives are potentially liable, and the company may have to cover a harasser’s costs (Maatman, 2000). † â€Å"The mandatory termination indemnity laws of many foreign countries–as well as the potential for steep fines and even jail terms for employees who cross he line–should give employers entering the international arena some pause. Businesses that establish offices overseas can face extensive liability exposure for ill-advised personnel decisions and unsound loss-control protocols (Maatman, 2000). â€Å"Sound implementation of personnel policies and practices aimed at combating sexual harassment can help minimize these risks. Proactive HR administration can preserve corporate reputation and brand image, enhance recruiting and retention of a competitive workforce and avoid violation of international sexual harassment laws (Maatman, 2000). To reduce incidents, companies should brief expatriates on regulations in regards to male and female behavior at work. When harassment takes place in an overseas establishment, it is less clear whose standards should apply – those of the host country or those of the home country (Hardman et al. , 1996). â€Å"If freedom from unwanted sexual advances or overtly discriminatory behavior is considered a universal human right, then firms should protect this right in their operations worldwide (Hardman et al. , 1996). † â€Å"U. S. ased corporations must be aware that their American employees have the statutory right to sue for this discrimination occurring throughout the world (Maatman, 2000). † â€Å"Applicants, workers and terminated employees who are U. S. citizens and are subjected to discriminatory practices anywhere in the world may file a discrimination charge against their U. S. employers (Maatman, 2000). † There is no easy answer to the problem of sexu al harassment and the misunderstanding that can occur across many different cultures. There are two types of sexual harassment that are recognized by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and the courts (Philips, 1997). They are as follows: Quid Pro quo and hostile environment sexual harassment. Quid Pro quo (this for that) happens when an employee makes it clear to a manager or supervisor that his or her sexual demands are unwanted and as a result of that loses an economic benefit, such as employment, an increase in salary or employment. Only managers and supervisors, not coworkers, can engage in quid pro quo harassment (Scarborough Zimmerer, 2006). A hostile environment sexual harassment is a sexual discrimination and the harassment must be harsh enough to alter the victim’s employment conditions and create an abusive work area. A hostile environment usually requires a pattern of offensive sexual behavior rather than a single, isolated remark or display (Scarborough Zimmerer, 2006). â€Å"Most sexual harassment charges arise from claims of a hostile environment (Scarborough Zimmerer, 2006). † â€Å"Some experts believe male-dominated workplaces are likely to be the most hostile to women (Zwettler, 1997). Management can enforce a policy against sexual harassment. This policy should first, clearly define what behaviors constitute sexual harassment, secondly, State in clear language that harassment will not be tolerated in the workplace, thirdly, identify the responsibilities of supervisors and employees in preventing harassment and lastly, spell out steps to take in reporting an incident of sexual harassment (Sca rbourough and Zimmerer, 2006). The effects of sexual harassment differ from person to person. It depends on how severe and how long the harassment went on. Victims of severe or chronic sexual harassment can suffer the same mental effects as someone who has been raped. Some of the health and psychological effects of sexual harassment are relocating to another city, another job, or another school, loss of career, absenteeism, and stress in relationships, decreasing work and school performance, guilt, headaches, feeling violated, eating disorders, having angry feelings towards the harasser and many more. In summary, some things you need to remember if you are being harassed is don’t quit your job, act quickly, get support from your coworkers, ridicule the harasser, use your union grievance procedures, notify the company, keep a diary, and find other victims (Moore White, 1997). Preventing sexual harassment is the best solution, and the key to prevention is educating employees about what constitutes sexual harassment (Scarbourough and Zimmerer, 2006). Training programs are designed to raise employees’ awareness of what might be offensive to other workers and how to avoid sexual harassment altogether (Scarbourough and Zimmerer, 2006). How to cite Sexual Harassment in Global Human Resource Management, Papers