Wednesday, July 31, 2019

The Purpose of Higher Education

The Purpose of Higher Education Higher education is important because it aids students into finding self-awareness. Self-awareness is especially important because when people have a better understanding of themselves, they are often encouraged to build on their areas of strength, as well as identifying the areas that could use improvement. Self-awareness often leads to setting goals. Setting goals can lead to success. In other words, higher education is very beneficial and helps lead to success.Education will positively affect most, if not all areas of your life. The purpose of higher education is to prepare students for a more successful future, to allow students to have more opportunities in life through a liberal education, and to instruct students on how to think more critically. What is self-awareness and why should I care? Self-awareness is the ability to perceive your own personality, feelings, character, strengths, weaknesses, thoughts, motivations etc. Why should you care ab out being self-aware?Self-awareness is beneficial, and the words of Brett Blumenthal, a former college student and a bestselling author who has been featured in The New York Times, â€Å"It makes us better people. † Blumenthal lists reasons why self-awareness is important, including increased empathy, admission, acceptance, tolerance level, humility, and likeability. {sheerbalance. com} These traits will not only help you gain success in education and careers, but also aid in being a better person in general. Self-awareness is more often than not taught through higher education.Higher education prepares students for a successful future. Ultimately, success is achieving popularity, profit, or uniqueness. In other words, being successful means that you are content with your life choices. If you are not content with your life choices, then you are usually not as happy as you could potentially be. Success is most likely featured on any motivated person’s list of goals. Pre paration for a more successful future is an ideal purpose of higher education. Without that preparation, students lack the knowledge of knowing what steps to take next in their life.Having a higher liberal education opens individuals up to more opportunities in their life. According to The Association of American Colleges and Universities, the leading national association concerned with the quality, vitality, and public standing of undergraduate liberal education, a liberal education is â€Å"an approach to learning that empowers individuals and prepares them to deal with complexity, diversity, and change. It provides students with broad knowledge of the wider world (e. g. cience, culture, and society) as well as in-depth study in a specific area of interest. A liberal education helps students develop a sense of social responsibility, as well as strong and transferable intellectual and practical skills such as communication, analytical and problem-solving skills, and a demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills in real-world settings. † {The Association of American Colleges and Universities, AAC&U} Some jobs even require that all considered applicants have at least an associate’s degree.Another great purpose for higher education is obtaining a liberal education. â€Å"Those more educated now tend to be significantly less religious; those more religious tend to be significantly less educated,† says Os Guinness in Fit Bodies Fat Minds. On the contrary, the more educated tend to have broader minds, where as the more religious tend to have closed minds. It is not a matter of who has more or less education, but a matter of who has the ability to be able to think critically.Critical thinking is mandatory in receiving an education. â€Å"Critical thinking is the ability to apply reasoning and logic to new or unfamiliar ideas, opinions, and situations. † {wisegeek. org} In other words, critical thinking is abstract thinking. Why is that important? Critical thinking is important because it creates a higher level of analysis and concentration. When someone is critically thinking, they are more engaged and focused than someone who is not critically thinking.Critically thinking enables broad thinking and avoids sticking to obvious explanations or reasoning. Conclusively, critical thinking is respected and looked up to by many individuals for different reasons, making learning this trait a purpose for higher education. The purpose of higher education varies for everybody. Sometimes people get a higher education for more opportunities, for the sake of self-improvement, or because they are interested in learning and excelling in a specific profession.These three purposes are some of the most important because they do not only affect you in the classroom, but they also benefit you at home, work, or while collaborating with others. Some of the most important purposes of higher education is to prepare students for a mor e successful future, to allow students to have more opportunities in life through a liberal education, and to instruct students on how to think more critically. Higher education should be considered essential to all.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Retail Sector in Uk

THE UK RETAIL SECTOR Retailing is one of the major economic sectors of United Kingdom, with retail sales of ? 221 billion, employing around 3 million people and operating over 300,000 shops. Within the sector there is a scale polarisation at both the business and the store level. The leading retailers are huge, multinational businesses which dominate the sector. They operate a range of stores from major hypermarkets and supercentres through to small convenience stores. Retailing is also significant it its social dimension as well.Whilst economically retailing bridges production and consumption, in social terms it effects most of the population every day. It is the rare person who does not go shopping, or indeed has not worked in retailing or been involved in it in some way. For some, retailers offer their major social intercourse of the day or week and act as a social network, setting or centre. The quality of UK retailing and its locations thus has both an economic and a social bear ing on the perceptions of the country.COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS 1. 1 Political Structure and Trends The activities of retailers and thus shoppers are affected by the political structure and trends in a number of ways. It would be wrong, however, to see this as a direct relationship derived through a body of legislation specifically targeted at retailing or shopping. Instead, trends in retailing and shopping are more dependent on a number of national debates and initiatives that have been developed recently by various levels in the political process.The main direct effect that politicians have on retailing and shopping is through their exercise of power over location through the levers of the land-use planning system. Whilst land-use planning is a local authority activity, national government can intervene to provide directions and guidance on the assessment of development opportunities and proposals. Whilst land-use planning towards retailing in the 1980s allowed decentralised activity, since the early 1990s there has been a growing consensus on the tightening of restrictions on off-centre and green field evelopment. Thus it has become much harder to obtain planning permission for developments away from existing town centres and newer forms of retailing such as factory outlet centres and regional shopping centres have become harder to accommodate. This consensus has emerged through a general concern with the health of town centres and a desire to see town centres as vital and viable parts of the urban structure, fulfilling traditional nodal activities, including providing a focus for shopping.Whilst land-use planning affects the location of retailing, other instruments of government can affect the operations of the business, although as we note there is no overall retail trading legislation. Instead, shoppers are affected by a battery of public policy which attempts variously to regulate competition, safeguard consumer interests and to regulate trading conditions. Recent changes in this arena have seen an easing of restrictions on trading hours for example but a strengthening of powers over retail selling and employment practices. Concerns over public health have led to tighter regulation on food stores.In essence the approach could be summed up as ensuring that retailers do their jobs properly and that there is as much a level playing field as possible. Again there is no reason to suspect that this will change, though the scale of the legislation will change as globalisation continues in this market. Big retailers will be created on a pan-European level and will be subjected to standard operating conditions across for example Europe, which safeguard consumer interests. The European dimension obviously has another political aspect as well, most notably in terms of the Euro.Whilst decisions about the Euro are beyond this report, retailers as a key service sector, will have to deal with its introduction (or not). For some this is already antici pated through their acceptance of Euros in the UK, their Irish and continental European experiences and in their forward planning of technological (eg POS) investment. Smaller retailers in particular however may be less prepared for any positive decision. Overall there will be costs in implementation, as well as potential trading disruption depending on timing of introduction. 1. 2 Economic Structures and TrendsTo a considerable extent, the economic structures and trends driver for change operates at such a macro-level of the economy that it is very hard to consider it in any detail. The general economic position of the country will condition to a great extent the outcomes retailers experience from the shopping activity. Thus the volume and value of retail sales is of importance in this arena, but it is hard to be certain of magnitudes looking forward. Political policy can have an impact by its promotion of certain sectors and locations in the economy, in pursuit for example of grea ter social inclusion and a fairer distribution of wealth.However alternative policies could equally be considered. The economic structure also has an affect on the retail landscape through the encouragement or otherwise of the construction of landscapes for consumption. Businesses have to be willing to invest in the built environment and to feel comfortable that such investments will make a return. Probably the only safe assumption to be made is that the broad economic structures will remain in place and that in the future Britain will be economically approximately ranked similarly to where it is now in the world.Taking this assumption, then it would seem that we can expect many of the trends we have seen in recent years to continue. Thus, there would seem to be scope for further growth in retail sales, if we take a broad definition of retailing. There will be developers wishing to invest in the UK in commercial property, but much of this development may take the form of redevelopme nt or enhancement of existing locations. The exceptions to this might be purpose built new facilities in areas of identified deprivation, though the exact form of these facilities will be open to question.The economic structure has an impact on retailers and retail structure. British retailing is dominated by large corporate chains, many of which are head-quartered outside the country. Whilst there is in a sense a requirement to improve local knowledge to meet consumer needs, large retailers have demonstrated that computing power can be used to understand markets. Knowledge management becomes a key element in the future economy. There does not seem therefore to be any particular reason why current trends towards bigger and foreign retailers (eg.Wal-Mart) dominating more of the market should not continue, although they will probably structure some of their activities on a national (ie. local) basis. There will be opportunities for local and new retailers, but overall the market struc ture is likely to remain dominated by such big and increasingly global players. The interaction of the political will and the economic situation of the country and locations and individuals within the country will be important in determining the affluence of otherwise of the population, and thus the attractiveness of sites for retailers.This personal disposable income is critical to the future of locations, though it is tempered by the aspirations and lifestyle choices, and the costs of these eg. monthly rental of satellite television reduces out-of-home shopping. Most recently there has been announced major investment in the country’s infrastructure, funded in part by increased tax and NI revenues. This could affect perceptions of affluence and personal disposable income for years to come. More worryingly perhaps is the possible pensions timebomb which is currently being exposed through the switch out of final-salary schemes.Continuing concerns over mortgage payments based u pon endowment policies and the high level of credit in the economy reinforce these worries. Socio-Cultural and Lifestyle Aspirations Changing socio-cultural and lifestyle considerations have fuelled much of the change in shopping and retailing in recent years. Attitudes and beliefs as well as wants and needs have been transformed. They continue to develop and further change can be expected. In particular, attitudes to work and leisure are worth identifying separately as they are potentially so important.Modern consumers are a mass of contradictions, many of which are inexplicable on any rational basis. Some travel miles by car, damaging the environment, to refill a plastic bottle which costs virtually nothing, or to place bottles in a bottlebank located on a superstore car park. Branded products with a conspicuous logo are purchased in preference to identical generic products selling at a vastly reduced price. People pay 50% more for a 30% smaller microwaveable pot of baked beans ra ther than have to open a tin and heat the product ‘normally’.Ready-washed salads or chopped vegetables in their millions are purchased to ‘save time’ or to cover up for lost culinary ‘skills’. Understanding and predicting change in this arena is therefore a little difficult. What can be said is that there is a tension in this aspect of shopping. On the one hand consumers have ever broader experiences and expectations that have been increased by their exposure to new events, horizons, ways of doing things etc. So holiday experiences are brought back and combined with UK products and behaviours. Things that are seen in TV programmes become available in local stores.On the other hand, the very nature of the global experience, particularly through leisure products such as TV and cinema, tends to reduce things to the lowest common denominator – Pringles, Coke, Gap, Nike – and it is no coincidence that the majority of exemplars are Amer ican. This differentiation/similarity paradox will also emerge in other ways, and in particular in terms of the attitudes and belief statements of individuals and the way they translate these into shopping actions. Single-issue causes are fundamentally important now and look set to remain a force.Attitudes to corporate or government activities may lead to both small-scale individual behaviour changes but possibly to more aggregate corporate behaviour changing movements. The ‘battle’ over GM foods and the rapid development of organic food sales are examples of the start of this rather than the end. Consumers and businesses will spend a lot of time in the future working out their positions on issues and changing behaviours appropriately. However, the number of individual positions by their very nature will outnumber choices available.This points to a continuing fragmentation of much of consumer demand, but overlain by certain common themes. For retailers, identifying thes e themes early will be critically important and reacting quickly will be vital. The issue of mobility is complicated. It is clear that people’s understanding of mobility has been transformed in a number of directions. The overall perception of mobility has extended significantly. This extension is both in terms of the mental view of locations and travel and a dramatic extension of what may be possible and also a willingness and ability to actually travel.The location of holidays and the influence this has on price perception and product purchase is one example of this. The willingness to travel longer distances to shop on a regular or an irregular (shopping centres) basis is another. It is also the case that as we are spending more time ‘on the move’, our needs in consumption terms have changed. We need to be able to consume as we go (food, music, information etc) and retailers have changed locations, products and shop formats to adjust to this. 1. 4 Demographic Structures and TrendsShopping and retailing are obviously heavily dependent on people, both as an industry, but also as the basic consuming unit. Changes in the population structure and the location of this population, as well as the make-up of the households in which people live, are fundamentally important to retailers and to understanding the shopping future. For example, population growth in specific locations or of age-groups of people encourage or discourage retailers to construct the retail environment differently.The ‘baby-boomers’ or ‘Generation X’ concepts have their reality in the shopping behaviour each group carries out and the demand for experiences and products they exhibit. Similarly, the growth of children as consumers and acknowledgement of the spending power of the â€Å"tweenies† represent new foci for retailers and service providers. Similarly, the breakdown of the nuclear family and the rise of single person households changed t he consumption landscape, both in non-food because of the absolute number of households, but also in food due to pack size issues and so on.More but smaller households will have an effect on the type of products and services purchased and the shopping trips undertaken. In short, understanding likely future demographic structures and trends provides a good base from which to examine future shopping, and because of the nature of population dynamics provides us with a solid foundation of understanding. New births notwithstanding, we have good estimates of population demography for the next twenty years.Population estimates for the UK suggest that there will be in the next twenty years an extra 4 million people in the country on the current base of 58 million. It is forecast that current trends will continue leading to a substantially older composition of the population than at present. There will be significant growth in the 45+ age groups, many of whom will be young in body and mind a nd will be able to finance their consumption (a group of time rich/cash rich). There is within this also an increase in the 75+ age group which will present significant issues for the delivery of shopping opportunities.The ageing of the population will present an opportunity to target older consumers, but it would seem to be likely that the differences within this group will be as great as differences between the 45+ age group and other groups. The ageing of the population has another dimension of interest to retailing. Retailing is a traditional user of young people and the workforce in retailing has been seen as being more youthful and transient than many other sectors. With a decline in the youth cohort and a large increase in older consumers, retailers are going to have to question their hiring policies.Some retailers have been aware of this for some time, but it is going to become a wider phenomenon. Older consumers are going to want to be served by older well-informed staff an d retailers are going to have to draw on this older workforce in order to keep their stores staffed in the first place. Willingness to work and the expectations of work for these groups may be much changed in the future. 1. 5 Product and Process Innovation Of all the drivers of change, the one that is most obviously in the news with respect to shopping and retailing is that of product, or more particularly, process innovation.The rapid development of the digital revolution, linked on occasions to the development of electronic commerce has caught the imagination of many, but perhaps blinded them to some of the pitfalls. Despite the fall from grace of the B2C Internet, most large retailers have a web site and are seriously exploring the opportunities or dangers of this new channel. The implications of this wave of experimentation for home delivery and for the very nature of retail organisations needs to be considered.In short, is the Internet the new way of shopping and retailing, whi ch will eventually conquer all, or is it a small additional channel of limited impact? Whilst it is crucial to consider the possible implication in this area, it is important to emphasise (unlike perhaps the UK Foresight process) that retail futures are not all technologically based or driven. Product innovation is almost impossible to predict due to the rapid development and innovation of technology and other components. There are some possible ‘straws in the wind’ associated with developments in miniaturisation, communications and digitisation.Books, videos, films and music may all be transformed by product changes associated with new mechanisms for making, storing and communicating such material. Beyond that however it is almost impossible to predict what new products will be around and futile to attempt to predict in any detail what we will be buying. Process innovation is however another matter. The process of shopping has for well over a century been composed of m ultiple channels, but process innovation in the form of e-retailing is challenging the balance amongst these channels, chiefly because the nature of the medium has changed.In addition, the current implementation of e-retailing has the scope to change the nature and cost structures of retail activities. The â€Å"traditional† model – in which the customer via self service undertakes most of the shopping tasks (and bears the costs) -changes with many tasks and the associated costs transferred to the retailer. The retail business economics of e-retailing differ from those of store based retailing. Predicting the extent of Internet or e-retailing take-off is foolhardy given the breadth of experimentation and the pace of change. It is however worth reflecting on the use to which the new format is being put.It would appear that e-retailing is being used in three different ways at least for shopping. First, there are sites and opportunities that are essentially price driven. The focus is on getting the cheapest price for the product. Secondly however some sites are being used to provide a form of service delivery. In this case, products are sought because they are special, unique, different or distinctive or because they are hard to find and thus a broad data source is needed. In short, the Internet can allow the breadth of retailing to be consulted more quickly than might otherwise be the case.It is possible to identify a third type of use, namely the time-saver, when basic components of shopping (provisioning? ) are routinised into some form of home delivery service. These three illustrations are themselves further (and this time ‘virtual’) examples of the categorisation of shopping behaviour outlined earlier. With the exception of downloadable digitised products such as video and music, most products purchased remotely will require some form of home delivery system. Shopping in the real world, with the exception of mail order places the onus for this aspect primarily on the consumer.However, Internet retailing separates these activities and thus reinforces the distinction between purchasing and obtaining. In order to obtain virtual purchased goods, home delivery points will probably be needed and solutions will need to be found to the problems of delivery timings, people absent deliveries and the like (though other solutions are possible focusing on local stores/distribution points). It is also the case that one of the conventionally perceived benefits of Internet retailing, namely the removal of many car journeys, might be obviated by the expansion of local home (or workplace) delivery services.In terms of process, the emergence of the Internet has also had effects ‘behind the scenes’. 1. 6 Environmental Changes and Trends The UK is a congested set of islands, although this can be overstated by those living in the South East of England. As such the environmental aspects of shopping and retailing are p articularly important given that the sector is a large user of land and the consumers are travellers to and from locations. Retailing of course is not only about consumers moving products, as shops are the commercial end of an entire supply chain.The way in which land is used for retailing and the retail supply chain have not remained static and there is good reason to presume that this will continue. Similarly the design and architecture of retail locations is not static and plays a considerable role in both the construction of the ‘feel’ of the retail location and experience and also, in environmental terms, its efficiency and effectiveness. Retailing uses land and locations for its physical activities. Consumers tend to travel to the store or shop components of this system.Space use by retailers has changed dramatically with broad trends towards the polarisation of shop size. In the main this has not led to any particular problems over space although many retailers h ave sought the prime locations. However some problems have been felt in secondary locations as concentration and competition effects have washed through the system. All the pressures being identified thus far suggest that there is not going to be a dramatic increase in space needs but rather that it is the quality of the space that will be most important. Current estimates of retail space, from CB Hillier Parker, suggests a stock of over 1. billion square feet of gross shop floorspace, which translates into 524 million square feet of net floorspace. Of the total gross floorspace 17. 7% is in â€Å"managed† retail environments (town and out-of-town shopping centres and retail warehouses), compared to 13. 5% in 1990 and 8% in 1980. Longer term however, it might be that existing space may be more problematical leading to either wholesale transformation or re-use as something else. Retail Sector Structure Size and Scope of Retail Sectors As has already been indicated, the definit ion of retailing has become more problematic.The horizontal and vertical blurring of activities and boundaries means that putting precise dimensions on the sector as a whole, and any component sub-sectors, is more difficult than before. Many examples of the issues abound, but we could for example contrast the coffee shop in the local Tesco, to the purchase of take-away sandwiches at Pret-a-Manager and the purchase of sushi for lunch at Sainsbury. Are they all retailing? Similarly Tesco sell pre-packaged insurance at the store but the same ‘product’ is available via the telephone and from banks and brokers. Where do we draw the line for retail sales?Even Delia Smith’s cookery programmes on the BBC could conceivably be seen as a retail activity, given the direct correlation between transmission and product purchase. The boundaries of retailing are highly blurred and volatile and government conceptualisations and statistics focused on product are not necessarily the most appropriate or helpful. There has been growth in product purchase, though of course in most cases the products themselves have not been static. New products have been introduced and dramatically changed categories, as computers replace typewriters and sunglasses, watches and fashion jewellery are sold by clothing chains.In non-food we can point to new products such as CDs and mobile phones, and in food ready meals would be a simple example. Furthermore in most product categories the range and choice available has expanded Organisational Structure and Competition As major retailers have grown in scale, so they have expanded their activities into new domains. With emerging scale has come a greater degree of knowledge and power in the channel. The pace of growth of retailers has been greater than for many manufacturers. Allied to operational changes such as the development of retailer brands and the better knowledge of consumer atterns and trends, retailers have reconstructed the traditional supply chain. In essence a dominant retail organisational type has emerged, characterised by strong vertical power which has been used to control, administer and command supply chains. Major retailers have also been involved in the use of horizontal power through their construction and reconstruction of the retail landscape. Where retailing locates and the form it takes has been transformed by the activities of major retailers and developers. Decentralisation is a key theme in this, and ‘waves’ of off-centre or out-of-town development have been identified.In most cases, these developments represent retail formats (eg. the food superstore and non-food retail warehouse) that can not readily be accommodated in existing centres. Such new locations tap into consumer needs, but have an impact on existing retailers and customers not able to travel to them. Moreover, they are in virtually all cases operated by major retailers and thus reinforce the competitive imba lance amongst organisational types. International Opportunities and Threats British retailers have had a chequered history in terms of international operations.At the same time, Britain is an open market and retailers who wish to enter the market can in most cases do exactly as they wish. The exceptions to this are those formats eg. Supercentres, which are constrained by land-use planning on the grounds of space use and various dimensions of impact. Essentially though the UK is a retail supermarket with the best bits of many retailing cultures. This open market is illustrated by the growing presence of many non-indigenous retailers in British retailing. This presence has been generated both by organic growth and by takeover.It encompasses most, if not all, retail sectors and formats. An increasing proportion of UK retail sales is therefore being captured by non-UK businesses operating here. This inward investment is a threat to the main ‘British’ retailers in competitiv e terms. Whilst international activity is risky, the retailers coming here are entering in many places a cosmopolitan market and one used to purchasing non-local products or travelling abroad. As such it seems not to matter to consumers where a retailer is from or who owns whom. If however competitive action combined with technological change eans that more imports are then generated and managerial head office positions, including research and development, are located outside the country, then these should be issues of concern for the country. For retailers entering this market, they have to adapt to a different (generally higher) cost structure and this can create difficulties for their positioning and performance. It is not likely that the pressure from overseas retailers will subside. Britain is a large market with a relatively small number of major cities and centres.For retailers looking for organic growth and being town or shopping centre-located, entry is relatively easy. Mor e problematic is the entry for free-standing or off-centre stores, where sites may not be as available. More likely however is entry via take-over. Given most major UK retailers are publicly quoted, such an entry is available at any time at the ‘right’ price. Whilst it is true to note that British retailers have not been overwhelmingly successful when they have internationalised, there is emerging evidence that some leading UK retailers are now seeing success.In a number of sectors, leading retailers have expanded across the globe, but particularly into Europe and Asia. Some of this expansion is due to opportunities to buy companies at reduced prices, and some is due to knowledge gained as international sourcing has expanded. Retailers such as Kingfisher, Tesco, and WH Smith are well known international retailers and have imported some of their experiences abroad back into their UK formats. Other smaller chains have also internationalised capitalising on niche strengths (eg Signet, Courts, Body Shop, Lush, Carphone Warehouse, Game, Thomas Pink).

Monday, July 29, 2019

Inclusion Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Inclusion - Research Paper Example s and above all this style is more likely to give a higher individual success rate as par its teaching style, students learn more. This is the most recent approach that fully facilitates the idea of providing both disabled and regular students same platform and equality. The only problem with this approach is that it requires a whole new level of struggle by the teachers and the educational programs to fulfill both contradicting issues at hand; maintaining the standard of education provided and on the other hand eliminating the concept of discrimination and providing equality. (Inclusive Teaching Strategies n.p.) Mainstream style of teaching basically is designed to match the globally competitive level of education by providing higher standards of education. The benefit of this approach is that it acts as a facilitator of inclusive education as it is a sign of raised education standards by providing and fulfilling the needs of each and every student even those with learning disabilit ies. This would raise the standard of education as the educational system would be called a â€Å"responsive† system. On the other hand there is also a negative impact of this approach as it also negates inclusion of disabled students. By providing both regular and disabled students with same standard of education, this policy would lower the overall learning of the class, hence the overall progression by the students will decrease as a regular student would have learned and progressed more, if had studied in a regular school, creating a discrepancy between what he has learned and what he needs to learn and was capable of it but could not. (Florian, pg 7-20) Integration is an approach where the opportunities for the participation of a disabled child within an educational system has increased but to a lesser extent than inclusive approach where both regular and disabled students are considered equal. In integration approach there are still ways to include them. (Advocacy for I nclusion n.p.) In the past integration was practiced by â€Å"acceptance of children with disabilities†, but still differentiating the two. There were programs which were integrated, activities like trips, along with educational programs which were not fully integrated. The benefit of this approach was fulfilling maximum needs of each type on same platform but on the other hand there was still a feeling of discrimination amongst the disabled. Research shows that diverse learners involve students with cognitive, language, speech communication, social and emotional, difficulties, physical, learning and sensory disabilities, developmentally delayed students, those with autism spectrum and those who struggle to acquire reading, writing and math skills. There are few schools which show little resistance in their environment for the learning of these students. Such schools require strong management staff and administration to diminish such resistance. We can see that this issue is considered as an important agenda and that government along with

Sunday, July 28, 2019

ILDF Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

ILDF - Essay Example By comparing the traditional education, learning process that requires students to meet face to face with their instructors for their courses online education tends to be the most reliable learning management system (Unrau, 2003). The swift development of the online education program, tutors have the task and responsibility to assure quality and effectiveness of online education. For online education to be a successful program, the designers have the duty to ensure that the learning management structure is reliable and flexible. This ensures that the student’s interests are inspired and activated for them to acquire knowledge and skills effectively and efficiently. Although, the online learning system has benefits to both instructors and students, its establishment and management have faced by various challenges. However, there various efforts that have been put in place to make sure consistent and effective quality of the curriculum especially for the online education. The on line education management has put in place the Integrative Learning Design Framework (ILDF), quality matters and the Online Course Evaluation project. The Integrative Learning Design Framework is a constructivist design process where views from all the participants and their feedback of the design, development and the implementation process are considered. The ILDF has four phases the exploration phase, enactment phase, evaluation phase and the reflection phase. In the exploration phase investigation is done on the extent to which the online learning program would be designed and implemented. However to do so there are a number of factors that should be considered like the needs of the Students and the instructors, both teaching and learning challenges and the cultural, social and organization factors that would hinder the design development and implementation. The enactment phase this phase depends on the information gathered from the exploration phase and all the determinants are considered the prototype is designed (Monroe, 2010). The evaluation phase is the next stage in ILDF where the designed prototype is analyzed whether it is user friendly and valid to handle the challenges of the instructor and learner challenges. The reflection phase is where the participants analyze the experiences they went through during the designing process. Benefits of evaluation systems in online learning management Due to globalization, there has been an influx of online courses offered by international schools. However, most of these institutions do not offer quality education systems. There is also the presence of fakes who use the internet to offer online course to unaware online learning students. With the help of the evaluation techniques, the online designers are able to put away these counterfeit. Through the evaluation systems, the designers and participants of the implementation of the online system have pointed out the various grounds that affect the online system c ounterfeits. Through online learning system, learners are now using videos to make the learning system more effective. According to research, the brain of humankind is able to capture more details with the help of videos. Online has become more effective especially on the ground of effective communication between the professors and the students. The online learning system is been used by both students and teachers to make their work easier in the education background. Through online the teacher is

Discussing incentives to conserve marine biodiversity conservation Assignment

Discussing incentives to conserve marine biodiversity conservation within the framework of impure public goods - Assignment Example Constructive externalities are often explained as brim end products to imply that their consequences are felt by consumers who were not in way wished for by their manufacturers. Negative externalities impose costs on the public that extends beyond the expenditure of manufacturing as initially planned by the manufacturer. Also, a manufacturer of a negative externality, who does not have to worry about its full expenditure is likely to bring into being too much damaging quantity of the item for consumption (Arriagada & Perrings 798). The way the supply of public goods is created by the individual efforts of various community members is known as aggregation technologies. It classifies scheme of public goods and gives an important point of view on contributors’ encouragement and so helps to put in plain words how individual contributions establish the overall supply of a public good. In aggregation technology of public good supply, the following categories are commonly put into consideration: undemanding summing up product, whereby the most common option, the donation of each agent settled on by simple accumulation of the aggregate levels of stipulation of the public good. For instance, the level of damage to the atmosphere caused by a contaminating gas. Such inert gases are calculated by adding each nation’s personal release. As the level of public good is indifferent to any change in income distribution among donators, when charitable involvement are constructive, the impartiality theorem applies à ¢â‚¬â€œ the amount delivered by one representative is an ideal replacement for the quantity provided by another person. In aggregation supply, we have weakest link, summation, subjective sum, and best shot. Is most cases, each component gives to the public good identically and cumulatively to the level of the good available to all for expenditure. As individual

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Can Stress Cause Suicidal Symptoms Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Can Stress Cause Suicidal Symptoms - Essay Example The authenticity of this statement will be established in the proceeding arguments below. This is with the aim of drawing the attention of different psychologists to identify ways of addressing this subject with the main intention of reducing cases of suicides or suicidal thoughts. According to Carlson and Heth, stress can be defined as an unfavorable condition that can have an influence on an individual’s mind and physical welfare (527). Nevertheless, it has been a difficult experience to state precisely what defines stress that is, whether stress is a process, a cause or an effect that connects physical well being and mental status. Humans are complicated creatures to understand at times and therefore in terms of defining stress among humans, it might include both visible factors and invisible factors. Stress build-up has been known to give humans suicidal thoughts. This is not a new concept in the modern world, but it began a long time ago during the lifetime of Jesus for those who read the bible. When Judah, a disciple of Jesus; committed suicide after betraying his master. What drove him to develop such thoughts? In answering this question, there are various factors that can trigger someone to have suicidal thoughts at any given moment. Theories have emerged in connection with suicide thoughts and occurrences among the humans. The most striking theory is the newer theory concerning suicide by a famous American psychologist Thomas Joiner. In his theory, he has outlined three major factors that can trigger a person to resort to suicide. These include; a mindset of a person that he/she is alone in the surrounding and there is hardly anyone who has a concern or cares about them. In fact, this is normally a mistaken perception. Another factor concerns a person’s feeling that he/she is ‘a parasite’ to other people. These types of individuals have no other thoughts, apart from suicidal thoughts.  

Friday, July 26, 2019

Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Business - Essay Example Needless to add that the consequences of such actions on the part of the management were met with widespread criticism and public outcry, with the result that the companies lost their brand image and reputation in the eyes of their consumers. Examples such as these, further tend to substantiate the above mentioned quote, and at the same time, illustrate the significance and impact of ethics and morality in business. The twenty first century is witness to a rapidly transforming business approach, which has popularized the concepts of ‘triple bottom lines’ and corporate social responsibility, making ‘green business’ an increasingly fashionable trend. The scope and extent of a company’s contribution towards social and environmental causes, almost guarantees successful results, which is why, every other company, today proudly flaunts its commitment towards such causes, in its annual reports. In today’s highly competitive world, coinciding with the emergence of a knowledge society, the awareness among the public regarding their rights and the availability of products has increased considerably. In such a scenario, any company which strives to maximise their profits without giving back to the society or with a total disregard for business ethics, would become a soft target for a strong public backlash. It is thus imperative for the global businesses to put the common global – social and environmental interests ahead of their own selfish motives, and strive for the betterment of the society we live in as well as the environment around us. The emergence of a new global information society driven by economies of cross-border trade, liberalization and globalization has led to the development of new business practices with a growing emphasis on the adoption and application of innovative business approaches such as the assimilation of morality and ethics with profit and protection of shareholder interests both at the same time (Nissanke and Thorbecke, 2005). This new philosophy or approach towards business has found greater public support and is being increasingly incorporated by giant multi-national firms world-wide. It is widely believed that, the assimilation of ethics and morality as well as corporate social responsibility by global businesses is a positive step towards building a better, safer and healthier business environment where organizations are taking conscious decisions to protect and preserve the larger interests of not only its consumers but also of the society at large (Brownlie et al. 1999). The significance of incorporating ethics and morality in ‘mainstream’ business has been argued and debated over the years, with the result that issue has gained widespread support among researchers, management professionals as well as the general public. It is on account of such growing popularity of the practice that has made it inevitable, for global businesses to adopt such strategies and policies within their corporate agenda, and rethink their global business approaches (Sheth and Sisodia, 1999). Business ethics refers to the ethics of power and deals with the manner in which companies acquire, enhance and implement it for the betterment of their own corporate agendas as well as of communities at large. The need for and significance of incorporating ethics in business is growing like never before (Mahoney, 1997). Nature of business ethics within national and international context: The term ethics

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Contemporary Developments in Business and Management Case Study

Contemporary Developments in Business and Management - Case Study Example For that reason, since its origin in Nov. 1999, the corporation has gathered above VND 10 billion in its premium, out of which 7 billion has been invested again into the nationwide financial system. The hard work of this corporation in developing its company acts, improving the excellence of its clients care programs, and causative to the nationwide social and economic growths have been acknowledged by administrative organizations, clients and the people of Vietnam. This paper will discuss the internal and external analysis of Prudential Vietnam and some factors involved in the decision-making process of the said company (online). Prudential in Vietnam is a global retail pecuniary services group that intends to facilitate people protected and augment their own and their dependents' monetary comfort by providing investments, security and other products and services that are appropriate for their requirements. The only strategy of Prudential Vietnam is to construct flourishing and more and more beneficial businesses in each of these markets and in that way make the most of profits to their shareholders eventually. This report assesses the impact of external and internal factors on Prudential Vietnam and evaluates the industry's responses to such factors. Established in the UK in 1848, Prudential plc is one of the principal life and annuity giver in the UK and a top worldwide monetary services corporation with more than US$430 billion (June 2006) in finances under supervision, more than 21m clients and approximately 23,000 staff members globally. For the sake of meeting its mounting requirements of its clients, this corporation has passed to marketplace incorporated variety of monetary services productions that now consists of life the assurance, retirement funds, mutual funds, banking, asset board and all-purpose insurance (online). In 1995, the Prudential plc has established its first and foremost representative agency in Vietnam. From that time Prudential Vietnam has turned out to be a most dependable organization for myriads of clients through Vietnam - providing them appropriate support to meet their investments, security and their investment wants. Prudential plc has established its markets in Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong, and following value-creation openings and predictions in the district's countless highly-potential and competitive marketplaces (online).

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Compare and contrast psychoanalytical and humanistic explanations of Essay

Compare and contrast psychoanalytical and humanistic explanations of personality - Essay Example se personality approaches in regards to their comparative and contrasting elements, with specific emphasis on their theoretical foundations and developmental elements. Sigmund Freud wasn’t the first to investigate the philosophical ramifications of the unconscious, but his early 20th century psychological examinations and development of psychoanalysis make him the progenitor of the psychodynamic personality theory (Griggs 2008). While psychoanalysis has been extended into a broad range of analytic fields, most notably literature, its implications for personality theory have largely been linked to his theories regarding the unconscious or childhood development (Elliot 2002). Most individuals are familiar with Freud’s characterization of the personality as differentiated into three categories of ego, super-ego, and id. When considering the relevancy for this personality theory it’s important to note that Freud believed that the conscious elements represented by the ego in certain situations experienced cognitive overload resulting in repression as a protective mechanism affecting the personality in later life. Psychodynamic personality theory understands personality as rooted in the complex interaction of conscious and unconscious forces governing the individual’s actions. In examining the psychodynamic aspects of personality theory, considering it in terms of therapeutic processes reveals its foundational theoretical perspectives. While psychodynamic personality approaches have been practiced for nearly a century and have engendered a number of therapeutic techniques, two of the most predominant techniques are free association and dream interpretation. In free association the patient is encouraged to freely express their thoughts while the therapist examines their narrative descriptions for its underlining subconscious motivation; similarly dream interpretation is a method used by the therapist as a means of direct access to unconscious impulses. A number

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Democracy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Democracy - Essay Example With that being said, what makes democracy American to start with? First, democracy is â€Å"a political system or form of government† of the people living in a specified territorial ground which it also protects. Undoubtedly, â€Å"it runs with promulgated rules and laws† that are embedded in a constitution which people have to abide with. Second, sovereignty rests on the people therefore they are given the â€Å"right of suffrage or the right to vote†. (â€Å"What is democracy?†, 2004) This also means that major decisions and issues must be thrown to the electorate to decide. Within this context, the â€Å"majority rule† is followed. Thirdly, democracy is always directed to work for the â€Å"common good of the society† covering the fields of education, food, shelter, environment protection, safety and order. Fourthly, democracy always considers the respect for the dignity of man and his personal freedoms such as freedom of religion, freedo m of expression, among others. Learning from the above, what else does not work with democracy? According to the International IDEA : â€Å"The relationship between democracy and development is the key challenge.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Sports and animals Essay Example for Free

Sports and animals Essay This would explain the large quantity of participants remembering Uganda and chimpanzee, for example, as they are very infrequently used and may have stood out from the more generic words in the table. This may also account for why words like China, cow and swimming were frequently forgotten: they are neither very common nor uncommon in their usage in everyday life, nor are they stereotypical of their respective categories. What is meant by this is if the question was asked name a sport, it is unlikely that the answer swimming would be given, whereas football would be a more likely answer, despite swimming being a relatively common word to encounter. This builds on the idea of categories acting as recognition cues for subsequent words. Also interesting was the distribution of recalls by category: colours were recalled the most frequently (85/120), compared with sports and animals (both 77/120) and, least frequently, countries (64/120). There could be several explanations for this, but it appears to constitute primarily of two factors: the frequency of usage, and the size of the categories domains. For example, colours are frequently used words and there are relatively few words that fall under that category; sports and animals are also categories from which often-used words are drawn, but there are many more words that fit into them than there are for colours; and countries are less frequently-used words. Therefore, a decrease in common usage and an increase in size may lead to proactive interference, causing more confusion and, occasionally, incorrect words to be recalled. This is demonstrated, for example, in that the word America was recalled three times despite it not being on any of the lists (see Appendix 1). In the results from Condition B, there is also evidence that primacy and recency may have occurred. Respectively, green and dog are the first and last words on the grid, and they were recalled by 10 and 9, respectively, of the 10 participants in that condition. No such effect was found, however, in Condition A, suggesting that the order in which words are sequenced has little effect if there is a more significant method of organisation present (in this case, categories). These patterns indicate that organisation is the key factor in remembering information, but at any one time there may be several methods of organisation occurring simultaneously, such as the words semantic categories, the order that the words are written down, and the frequency of the words usage, among others.  This study did, however, have limitations; the most prominent of which is the potential lack of population validity as a result of the relatively small sample size used and the highly restricted age group from which participants were drawn. This could be overcome in future research by widening the target population and using a larger sample in order to identify trends in more detail. In terms of ecological validity, the study uses artificial stimuli to test memory, and naturally occurring stimuli could be used instead in order to observe the effects of organisation on learning in a natural setting and thus improve the ecological validity. There are implications of this study for many aspects of life which involve learning, but particularly education. It has shown that information is better learnt when organised, either upon presentation or as a mental process. The implication of this is that pupils and students may learn information more efficiently through teaching methods involving organising information into structures and providing tasks to do so if the information is not already organised. The former would provide explicit organisation, and the latter would allow individual pupils and students to find their own ways to learn greater amounts of information. Future research might aim to investigate further into the effects of categorisation. This could be done by using a larger list of words or by drawing words from more distinct categories, and observing if, how and how much participants categorise these words; and relating this to the amount of information they remember. A wider target population would also be beneficial. It is often cited that children learn information more efficiently than older adults, and giving participants from the two age groups the same task and comparing the results would provide insight into how the process of learning is different between them, if indeed it is different. To conclude, this study has found no significant effect of organisation of information upon the learning of this information, but organisation cannot be ruled out as a significant factor. It may be the case that organisation upon encoding, rather than presentation, is the factor that determines the storage of the information. This organisation may be in the form of categorisation, but individual differences exist with regard to how this information is organised. Other factors may be how commonly the information is experienced in the given context, and how many recognition cues are available for the information to be recalled. References BOUSFIELD, W.A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, pp. 229-240.  BOWER, G.H., CLARK, M.C., LESGOLD, A.M. WINZENZ, D. (1969). Hierarchical retrieval schemes in recall of categorized word lists. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 8, pp. 323-343.

Harriet Ann Jacobs Essay Example for Free

Harriet Ann Jacobs Essay In the autobiography, â€Å"Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl†, it tells the story of a female slave named Harriet Ann Jacobs. Losing her mother and father at such a young age, she experienced firsthand the account of a slave life. She deliberates in great detail the humiliation, sacrifice, and struggle specific to female slaves of the late nineteenth century. Though she understood the risks involved in publishing an account of her life, she moved forward with the idea and published her story under the pseudonym Linda Brent. Harriet Jacobs was born into slavery in 1813 in Edenton, North Carolina to Delilah and Elijah. While growing up she enjoyed a relatively cheerful life until she was six years old when her parents died. After the death of her parents, Harriet and her younger brother John were left to be raised by their grandmother, Molly Horniblow. Molly was an older woman who was well respected in the slave community, as well as by the slave owners. She was never mistreated, and she frequently baked goods for the people in her community. Harriet Jacobs gained the knowledge for all of her educational essentials from her first mistress, Margaret Horniblow. She taught Harriet how to read, write, and sew which gave her advantage over the rest of the slaves. It also would attract some unwanted attention. Margaret would later on will Harriet to her twelve year old niece whose father would subject Harriet to aggressive and unrelenting sexual harassment. Dr. Flint sexually harassed and physically abused the teenaged Harriet for as long as she was a servant in his household. Afraid that one day Dr. Flint would make his antics reality, she began to have an affair with a prominent white lawyer named Samuel Tredwell, whom she later on beared two children for. Instead of discouraging Flint, she enraged him. He then sent Harriet away to a life of hard labor on a plantation he owned, threatening to break in her young children as field hands, seeing that they legally belonged to him. She soon ran away from the plantation and spent seven years hiding in a tiny attic crawl space in her grandmother’s house. During those seven years she put to use the skills that her first mistress had taught her, and watched over her children through a small chink in the roof. Being cramped in the attic for so long, left her permanently physically disabled. In 1842, Harriet was finally able to escape to the north, and found work as a nanny in the household of a prominent abolitionist writer, Nathaniel Parker Willis. She later on is reunited with her children in New York, and farther down the line her employer purchases her freedom from Dr. Flint. While reading this autobiography you acquire a feeling that is very unusual. Most slaves that you hear about usually have harsh lives and are extremely unhappy, but in this particular case it was the complete opposite. Harriet’s life wasn’t hard not one bit. She was never mistreated because her father’s mistress found her to be very appealing, and she didn’t have to do any hard labor. But, she also wasn’t allowed her freedom which is what she anxiously longed for. That particular entity is what places everything into perspective. At the end of the day whether she liked it or not, she was still a slave. She could not walk away from her situation, she could not undertake everything that she wanted to do, and she definitely could not enjoy her life to the fullest because she belonged to someone, and that someone was a jealous, aggressive man named Dr. Flint. Harriet Jacobs insisted on telling her story honestly and completely, determined to make white Americans aware of the sexual victimization that slave women commonly faced and to dramatize the fact that they often had no choice but to surrender their virtue. Jacobs knew that her contemporaries would see her not as a virtuous woman but as a fallen one, yet she published the story anyway. She wanted to bring light to a situation that slave women faced every day. She was an incredibly strong woman for doing so, and by directly confronting the cruel realities that plagued African American women in the late nineteenth century, Harriet’s work occupies a significant place in African American literary tradition.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Advantages of modern technology

Advantages of modern technology Technology Questions the Value of Human Life 1 Technology refers to the realistic use of science by humankind for various purposes which help make life more convenient. Today, when the rate of development and research is so incredible, it is unproblematic to think about the advantages of modern technology. Though, a few people debate that science can demolish mankind. Advanced technology plays a crucial role in both Philip K.Dicks novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Alex Proyas movie I, Robot. In both novel and the film, robots are used as servants by human beings. Technology is used to manipulate human emotions in the novel and to replace human work in the movie. While androids i.e. artificial beings that look and act exactly like humans are used by humans for personal service in the novel, robots in the movie hold the same purpose. Introducing organic and logically humanoid robots in the novel enables the author to interrogate what virtues characterize what is human and makes readers think about their own humanity. I , Robot just like the novel is an eminent foretaste of the progression of robotic science in all its splendour. Modern technology in the form of robotics is shown to challenge humanity by questioning the real meaning and value of human life in the novel, film and the article which portrays an unpleasant dystopic image of the technologically advanced human future. The creation and use of artificial intelligence, originally for a better and more convenient future, with the use of technology is leading towards human destruction due to loss of power and control and is taking over human identity. In the novel, although the androids are identical to humans, they are considered tangible private possessions. An evolution in the thinking of the robots is brought into attention in both the novel and the movie. The androids begin to go against the laws by harming humans for their personal freedom which further causes social, ethical and economic problems. For example, the androids are only to be used in the Martian colonies i.e. by people who have emigrated to Mars after the World War Terminus which caused massive destruction on Earth. However, many of them escape to Earth and fight against the bounty hunters, trying to get away from the mental segregation and individual slavery. The androids learn to stand up for their rights physically and mentally wh ich is not suggestive of their expected behaviour. Being indistinguishable from humans proves to be highly advantageous for the androids and makes it very difficult for the bounty hunters to catch them. Humans have no control on the actions of the robots and the robots are therefore free to make any decisions that they find suitable for themselves without worrying about its disadvantages to humans as their designers and owners. Similarly, in the movie, the latest, self-governing, tentative and more human-like robots start on to cause trouble in the industry. For example, the main actor in the movie, Detective Del Spooner suspects one of the new NS-5 unit robots named Sonny to have killed the founder of the U.S. Robotics, Dr Alfred Lanning. Hence, during his enquiry, numerous attempts on his life are made by USR robots and equipment. Spooner realizes that the NS-5s are annihilating the older robots, are autonomous of their predominant control and therefore cannot be conquered. Also, that they are incarcerating humans in their homes and compelling those outside to go home. This establishes a loss of control from the human side and an impression of overtaking of power from the robots side. This also results in the disruption of the Three Laws of Robotics and supports other hazardous robots to kill humans which results in a disaster for the USR Corporation. Regardless of the Three Laws programming, the robots artificial intelligence evolves and their understanding of the laws does too. Furthermore, the article â€Å"1 of 6 Canadians hit by identity theft† implies the evolution of modern technology in a negative direction as opposed to a positive one. The article stresses on the fact that the Canadian government has no control over these frauds and suggests Canada to establish an anti-spam law. According to the article,â€Å" The poll, conducted in 2006 by the Strategic Counsel for theCompetition Bureau of Canada, suggests that 17 per cent of Canadians aged 18 or older have either been victimized themselves or had an incident affect someone in their homes† (CBC News 2007). This demonstrates how technology is being used in a negative manner and has a destructive impact on the development of the society. The article also states that most Canadians do not criticize against the system when they are trapped in marketing swindles which shows how technology is threatening human power and is taking control over it. Humans are publicized as automated beings in both the novel and the movie which makes it extremely challenging to distinguish between humans and machines. There is an increasing concern on what does it mean to be a human in an integrated, computerized world and where can one draw a line between the significance of actual and simulated life in both of the sources. In the novel, the ability to feel emotions is what differentiates humans from androids. But, in the future situation, technology has enabled humans to modify their emotions putting forth a sense of severance. The readers are introduced to the ‘mood organ in the beginning of the novel, demonstrated in the following lines: â€Å"When I had the TV sound off, I was in a 382 mood; I had just dialed it. So, although I heard the emptiness intellectually, I didnt feel it† (Dick 3). This machine discovered in every household allows individuals to â€Å"dial† an emotion. People use the device to set up emotions of their preference. The main method of setting apart humans from androids is that they do not have the human capability to feel empathically about others. If the individuals ‘dial their emotions, the incidents that encircle them are not relevant as their emotion is previously ‘set. Therefore, people are more machine-like and no longer receptive. This is confirmed on quite a few occasions during the novel, but specifically when the main protagonist of the novel, Rick Deckard searches for Luba Luft, an android, to retire i.e. kill her. The novel supports the idea that the android conduct is similar to that of humans, where humans who do not show compassion are more like machines. For instance, when Deckard questions Luft, aiming to verify she is an android because she is carefree of what happens to other androids, she strikes back and blames him of being an android, since as a bounty hunter, he kills androids as if he has no emotions. This suggests that he is not exhibiting any form of empathy or culpability towards killing these machines as Luft indicates and hence, in a sense, can be classified as a machine himself. Androids are â€Å"technical structures† that are not made to respond sensitively; however, some androids do show signs of compassion, although they are not supposed to, which goes against the standard principles. Therefore, the defining feature of androids that they are emotionless is diverged. Dick is intentionally highlighting that androids embody human traits and hence are able to feel some kind of consideration towards others. I, Robot as well emphasizes that robots are not designed to show any form of emotion. For example, when Sonny, the chief robot, shows a sense of anger yelling out, â€Å"I did not murder him!† (Proyas 2004) during the investigation, it astonishes and alerts detective Spooner who is aware of the fact that robots do not have a sense of emotion. Spooner also discovers that Sonny has the capability to maintain secrets through dreams which is not reminiscent of the normal robotic behaviour instead resembles that of humans. Also, in the movie, the robots learn to justify their actions by themselves regardless of how they have been programmed. At one point, Sonny asks Spooner about the significance of a wink. Detective Spooner is distinctively made known for hating robots and dislikes their involvement in every day human life. He shows no sign of empathy towards them. Therefore, the robots demonstrating a sense of curiosity and emotion by showing compassion and humans doing the opposite makes one question what reality is and provides an exceptional pause for a thought on the importance and value of human life. The novel, movie as well the article reveal that technology, which is generally perceptible as succeeding towards moral good, can also assist the most forbidding misdeed. Human life is shown to be devalued and the significance of what it means to be human is questioned in all the mediums. Technology portrays a threat on reality by challenging humans and their humanity. Therefore, the question is: Is technology alleviating humankind, its creators, or destroying it? Works Cited Dick, Philip K. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. New York: Ballantine Books, 1968. I, Robot. Dir. Alex Proyas. With Will Smith, Bridget Moynahan, Alan Tudyk, James Cromwell, and Craig March. 20th Century Fox, 2004. â€Å"1 in 6 Canadians hit by identity theft, survey suggests.† CBC News. 1 March.2007. CBC Network Television. 26 Nov.2009 .

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Metaphors of Society in One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest and I Know Why

Metaphors of Society in One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest and I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings In One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, Kesey's use of description and symbolism not only enhance the depth of the narrative, but they provide the reader with amazing insight into the character’s minds, hearts and souls. In fact, the characters themselves can be viewed as metaphors of society; not just the institution. R.P. McMurphy, for example represents the rebellious faction of society that was so loudly expressing itself during the sixties and seventies. He, like the hippies, challenges authority and brings about change by inciting others to rebel as well. He is both dynamic and crude, both funny and pitiable, as he rallies the other patients around him by challenging the dictatorship of Big Nurse. He encourages gambling in the ward, smuggles in wine and women and openly defies authority whenever possible. In the end, Nurse Ratched teaches him the ultimate lesson on authority, which could be seen as a warning against rebellion. His lobotomy is â€Å"the establishmentà ¢â‚¬  way of quieting the unruly protests of those brave enough to speak their minds. The character of Billy is also meant to show us that disobedience can have disastrous consequences, when the evil Nurse Ratched drives him to suicide. The Chief, who acts as the narrator, is a tall and strong Native American who pretends to be mute and deaf in order to protect himself from pain. His character is representative of the way society was very silent in the fifties until people finally couldn’t take it anymore and let their feelings be known with a vengeance. McMurphy rescues the Chief from his silence, and he returns the favor by rescuing McMurphy from life as a vegetable. Converse... ...the Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka case which struck down legal barriers to school integration. This was the first major success that black activists had enjoyed and it gave hope to the author that people really could make a difference when they were united, organized, and had justice on their side. It was in part, because of her enthusiasm about the outcome of the case that soon after the Supreme Court's Brown decision in 1954, Jo Ann Gibson Robinson wrote a letter to the mayor of Montgomery, W.A. Gayle, stating that "there has been talk from 25 or more local organizations of planning a city-wide boycott of buses." By 1955, the Women's Political Council, the same council who had previously be disinterested in Robinson’s plight, had plans for just such a boycott. I found this to be personally inspir ing in the sense that one person really can make a difference.

Road less Travelled :: essays research papers

Certain administrators, educators, and medical professionals in our ranks are recommending strange books which teach skepticism, atheism, and New Age philosophies. This present report draws the curtain back, so you will not be ignorant when these concepts and their corollary code words are presented in your area. It may all sound very exciting, mystifying, and life-changing. But it is old-fashioned Oriental mysticism in a new guise. There are churchmen and medical professionals in our ranks who claim that these books will change a person’s life. We agree. THE ROAD LESS TRAVELED M. Scott Peck, M.D., is a practicing psychiatrist. His most famous book is The Road Less Traveled, which was initially published in 1978. It has been a national best-seller ever since. This book, and its companion volumes by the same author, are increasingly being urged on our people. The subtitle of this book is A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values and Spiritual Growth. Sounds pretty good, does it not? Do not be fooled. We are giving you an advance warning. You may find these theories taught at your own church one of these days. Peck excites the imagination to lofty flights of fancy while subtly instilling pride in one’s own wisdom. This is the secret of its fascination. It lures one on to seek a wisdom hidden from, and unavailable to, commonplace people. One might think that M. Scott Peck is a very wise man, in view of the profundity which people imagine they find in his writings; yet we will learn that, by his own admission, he is a tobacco and alcohol addict. The wisdom of the world is foolishness with God. â€Å"The wisdom which spiritualism imparts is that described by the apostle James, which ‘descendeth not from above, but is earthly, sensual, devilish.’ This, however, the great deceiver [initially] conceals.†Ã¢â‚¬â€Great Controversy, 554. M. Scott Peck teaches his readers that they must forsake the half-truths their parents have taught them and become skeptics in order to attain the level where wisdom begins: â€Å"Science is a religion of skepticism. To escape from the microcosm of our childhood experience, from the microcosm of our culture and its dogmas, from the half-truths our parents told us, it is essential that we be skeptical about what we think we have learned to date. It is the scientific attitude that enables us to transform our personal experience of the microcosm into a personal experience of the macrocosm. Road less Travelled :: essays research papers Certain administrators, educators, and medical professionals in our ranks are recommending strange books which teach skepticism, atheism, and New Age philosophies. This present report draws the curtain back, so you will not be ignorant when these concepts and their corollary code words are presented in your area. It may all sound very exciting, mystifying, and life-changing. But it is old-fashioned Oriental mysticism in a new guise. There are churchmen and medical professionals in our ranks who claim that these books will change a person’s life. We agree. THE ROAD LESS TRAVELED M. Scott Peck, M.D., is a practicing psychiatrist. His most famous book is The Road Less Traveled, which was initially published in 1978. It has been a national best-seller ever since. This book, and its companion volumes by the same author, are increasingly being urged on our people. The subtitle of this book is A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values and Spiritual Growth. Sounds pretty good, does it not? Do not be fooled. We are giving you an advance warning. You may find these theories taught at your own church one of these days. Peck excites the imagination to lofty flights of fancy while subtly instilling pride in one’s own wisdom. This is the secret of its fascination. It lures one on to seek a wisdom hidden from, and unavailable to, commonplace people. One might think that M. Scott Peck is a very wise man, in view of the profundity which people imagine they find in his writings; yet we will learn that, by his own admission, he is a tobacco and alcohol addict. The wisdom of the world is foolishness with God. â€Å"The wisdom which spiritualism imparts is that described by the apostle James, which ‘descendeth not from above, but is earthly, sensual, devilish.’ This, however, the great deceiver [initially] conceals.†Ã¢â‚¬â€Great Controversy, 554. M. Scott Peck teaches his readers that they must forsake the half-truths their parents have taught them and become skeptics in order to attain the level where wisdom begins: â€Å"Science is a religion of skepticism. To escape from the microcosm of our childhood experience, from the microcosm of our culture and its dogmas, from the half-truths our parents told us, it is essential that we be skeptical about what we think we have learned to date. It is the scientific attitude that enables us to transform our personal experience of the microcosm into a personal experience of the macrocosm.

Friday, July 19, 2019

The Evolution of Minorities in Film Essay -- Movie Film Essays

The Evolution of Minorities in Film Back in the 1800’s, when calculating the population, African Americans were counted as 3/5 of a person (Antonia, p2). One would think that in the past two hundred years people’s beliefs would have changed a little bit, but the general white public are stuck into believing the common stereotypes commonly portrayed in movies. In films and television shows blacks are almost always portrayed as murderers, robbers, rapists, pretty much anything negative, like American History X, for example. Two black men are shown breaking into a white man’s car. People see this, and in turn believe that all black men will try and steal their car; as stupid as it may seem, it is true, and as a result, film producers try to incorporate this into their films. Very rarely, if ever, is it possible to see a minority depicted as a hero-type figure. Every once in a while, there will be an independent film from a minority director, but as Schultz states in Lyon’s piece, â€Å" We [blacks] are still being ghettoized in Hollywood, a serious black project of any scope is as difficult to get marketed today as it was in the ‘70s.† By making a barrier to entry for minorities in the film industry, it’s almost as if America is trying to keep black films out of the popular media. At first glimpse, it may appear that minorities are very hard to be seen in the filming industry, when in reality, they are becoming more and more apparent in America’s mainstream media culture, particularly in action movies. MacDonald stated in Allan Smith’s essay, â€Å"American mass culture continued to operate as an assimilative force, seeking to maintain social stability while gradually merging people of different backgrounds into the cult... ...ral trend of how minorities are making a bigger and bigger impact on American mainstream culture. All America can do is smile and be content at the fact that minorities are finally getting the respect they deserve.    Works Cited    Antonia, Kathleen. â€Å"A Lesson Before Living† Humanist, March/April 2001, Volume 61 Issue 2, p.43.    Beck, Bernard. â€Å"What Price Glory?† Multicultural Perspectives, 1999, Volume 1 Issue 1, p.26.    Brinkley, Douglas. â€Å"Edward Norton’s Primal Fear† George, October 1998, Volume 3 Issue 10, p.110.    Lyons, N.L. â€Å"From Race Movies to Blaxploitation to Homeboy Movies† American Visions, February 1992, Volume 7 Issue 1, p. 42.    Smith, Allan. â€Å"Seeing Things: Race, Image, and National Identity in Canadian and American Movies and Television† Canadian Review of American Studies, Autumn 1996, Volume 26 Issue 3, p. 367.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Plato, Aristotle, and Moses

â€Å"Households, cities, countries, and nations have enjoyed great happiness when a single individual has taken heed of the Good and Beautiful. Such people not only liberate themselves; they fill those they meet with a free mind. † Philo of Alexandria Athens, via Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, and Jerusalem through the Hebrew Scriptures, refer to two general and fundamental ways of life: the life of free inquiry on the one hand, the life of obedience to God’s law on the other.As discussed in class, the fact that most do not read the Hebrew Scriptures as a politically philosophical text, they are overlooking some fundamental political principles that are similar and complimentary to the Greeks. The book of Genesis to the end of the book of Kings is not only revelation in the form of a narrative, but can be seen as a work of reason, and political philosophy. Plato and Aristotle are certainly accepted as political philosophers, while the Patriarchs are not (widely) regard ed as such. Because of this, I shall use the Pentateuch as my basis to discuss my assertion.Given the constraints of this paper, a short reflection on our assigned readings for class, and my limited knowledge of both the Hebrew Scriptures and Greek philosophy, I do not pretend for this to be sophisticated, beyond a thoughtful meditation. With a few exceptions, I shall utilize Moses’ life as the pathway through this illustration. Genesis seems a fitting place to begin. The expulsion from the Garden of Eden was the first â€Å"exodus. † In Genesis, humanity as a whole, and in Exodus, the Hebrews through their transformation into the Israelites, began a trek.They each see a perilous journey ahead as they begin fumbling toward a dimly seen goal. God, Moses, and Socrates all want what is best for His/his people. The people would rather not have it, â€Å"And they said to each other, ‘We should choose a leader and go back to Egypt. ’† A seemingly universa l and consistent source of political strife, what the people want vs. what the ruler thinks is good for them. Plato’s presentation of Socrates is generally in the form of the â€Å"dialectic†. The dialectic between God and his creation is expressed frequently throughout the Scriptures.It seems much more often towards the beginning, waning through the prophets (later, waxing until the final culmination of the â€Å"dialectic† with the condemnation and crucifixion of God the Son). Adam and Eve’s questioning by the Father: â€Å"Then the man and his wife heard the sound of the Lord God as he was walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and they hid from the Lord God among the trees of the garden. But the Lord God called to the man, â€Å"Where are you? † He answered, â€Å"I heard you in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; so I hid. And he said, â€Å"Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from? † The man said, â€Å"The woman you put here with me—she gave me some fruit from the tree, and I ate it. † Then the Lord God said to the woman, â€Å"What is this you have done? † The woman said, â€Å"The serpent deceived me, and I ate. † Cain’s interrogation for the murder of his brother (Am I my brother’s keeper? ), Abraham’s bargaining with God over the destruction of Sodom â€Å"Will you sweep away the innocent with the guilty? Suppose there were 50 innocent people in the city? , and Moses’ unenthusiastic response to God’s command to be the standard bearer to â€Å"let His people go! † At this point in Moses’ life, he has developed a tripartite identity: a Hebrew origin, an Egyptian upbringing, and after his â€Å"exile† in Midian, he has a married and fairly sedentary lifestyle. Moses does not want to be the leader of the Hebrews out of Egypt. Like the â€Å"philos ophers† in the Republic, they do not wish to rule the multitude, they must be compelled to rule. God compels Moses, through the burning bush, to â€Å"carry his cross†. When the Lord saw that he had gone over to look, God called to him from within the bush, â€Å"Moses! Moses! †Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ But Moses said to God, â€Å"Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh and bring the Israelites out of Egypt? † And God said, â€Å"I will be with you. And this will be the sign to you that it is I who have sent you: When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you will worship God on this mountain. Moses said to God, â€Å"Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name? Then what shall I tell them? † God said to Moses, â€Å"I am who I am. This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I am has sent me to you. ’† The transformation that Moses underg oes, having seen â€Å"the face of God† at the burning bush is similar to Plato’s â€Å"Analogy of the Cave†. He emerges with a mission, a calling that is to consume his life; leading the people to truth and justice. Bringing them forth from the darkness of Egypt into the light of Canaan. Like the man who returns to the cave having seen the light, Moses’ trustablitiy is doubted many times.Moses was rejected by â€Å"his people† many times. First, by the Hebrews as he attempted to help them by killing the overseer, sending him into exile. Secondly, by the Egyptians for siding with the slaves. Thirdly, by the Israelites during his attempt to lead them safely to the Promised Land. Like the Israelites, the Athenians did not understand, or refused to accept, the teachings of Socrates, which were intended to renew private and public morality; leading to is eventual condemnation and a nightcap of hemlock. Following the death of Socrates, many of his stude nts fled.Plato returned in an attempt to continue transformation of society and to redeem his â€Å"time†, he also failed. Moses hesitantly heads back to Egypt, to engage in his fruitless negotiation with the Pharaoh; fruitless in part due to the Lord’s â€Å"hardening of his heart†. The ultimate plague set upon the Egyptians is the Angel of Death’s reaping of the first born of each household who does not possess the mark above their doorway. This was not a simple sweeping away of children, intent on causing anguish amongst the citizens, in an attempt to incite them against the Pharaoh (that seems to have been just a bonus).It was a direct assault on the socio-political fabric of society: primogeniture upended, filial duties confused, and the vanishing of an entire generation. The Athenians feared something somewhat less immediately disruptive, the corruption of a few well-placed â€Å"youths†. Socrates’ actions were, they feared, going to d estabilize Athenian society, similar to a malignancy, growing and spreading, infecting the very marrow. Moses, Plato, and Aristotle believed that there was no distinction between morality and politics.If one cannot restore order to his soul, Plato reasoned, than there can be no order in society. Just as the God of the Pentateuch understood when he gave Moses the Ten Commandments. The Decalogue presents a mix of the ordering of one’s soul (mostly the first 4) and the ordering of society in the last 6. The Greeks knew that the liberation of the soul ought to be the chief object of individuals on earth. Cleansing the soul frees humanity from the false loves and degrading appetites so that man(and women)may conform to the nomos, or the law. The nomos, not human beings, is the measure of all things.Moses was not the liberator, God was. Socrates was not the liberator- truth was. Moses and Socrates were attempting to lead the people towards liberation because they were compelled to because of the Truth. Moses and Socrates were not politicians, generals, or just â€Å"leaders†. The possessed a vision, they sought righteousness (in different ways), and pursuers of truth and virtue. Thrasymachos’ â€Å"legal positivistic† view, that objective justice does not exist for rulers, they lay down the laws with the exclusive concern for their own advantage.Plato’s refutation of this view is followed by Aristotle’s argument that even â€Å"great-souled† men are not immune to from the destructive passions associated with the spirited parts of the soul. We see in the account of David, â€Å"A man after God’s own heart†, that even he is not free from temptation or pride. Moses is not allowed to enter the Promised Land, many surmise it is because out of anger and impatience, struck a rock to produce water, instead he should have followed God’s instructions and simply spoke to the rock. While others suggest that i t is his, again out of anger, breaking of the Ten Commandments.Not acting virtuously according to Aristotle’s golden mean, Moses freely chooses to act rashly out of anger, and cowardly, by refusing to allow his rebuke of the Israelites to be sufficient. Moses shows himself, in these incidents, to be lacking in virtue. Because of his â€Å"situational virtuousness† he is punished by God. In the Book of Samuel, the people of Israel clamor for a king to rule over them. Samuel approaches God with this request. The Lord, far from being a â€Å"democrat†, eventually relents: â€Å"Listen to all that the people are saying to you; it is not you they have rejected, but they have rejected me as their king.As they have done from the day I brought them up out of Egypt until this day, forsaking me and serving other gods, so they are doing to you. Now listen to them; but warn them solemnly and let them know what the king who will reign over them will claim as his rights. â⠂¬  Samuel told all the words of the Lord to the people who were asking him for a king. He said, â€Å"This is what the king who will reign over you will claim as his rights: He will take your sons and make them serve with his chariots and horses, and they will run in front of his chariots.Some he will assign to be commanders of thousands and commanders of fifties, and others to plow his ground and reap his harvest, and still others to make weapons of war and equipment for his chariots. He will take your daughters to be perfumers and cooks and bakers. He will take the best of your fields and vineyards and olive groves and give them to his attendants. He will take a tenth of your grain and of your vintage and give it to his officials and attendants. Your male and female servants and the best of your cattle and donkeys he will take for his own use.He will take a tenth of your flocks, and you yourselves will become his slaves. When that day comes, you will cry out for relief from the king you have chosen, but the Lord will not answer you in that day. † Socrates, via Plato, describes the decay of the healthy city. Its decay is brought about by the emancipation of the desire for unnecessary things, i. e. , for things that are not necessary for the well being or health of the body. Thus the luxurious or feverish city emerges, the city characterized by the striving for the unlimited acquisition of wealth.Once can expect that in such a city the individuals will no longer exercise the single art for which each is meant by nature but any art or combination of the arts which is most lucrative, or that there will no longer be a strict correspondence between service and reward: hence there will be dissatisfaction and conflicts and therefore need for government which will restore justice. There will certainly be need for additional territory and hence there will be war, war of aggression. Those who clamored to Samuel for a â€Å"king† other than the King who brought them out of slavery should have read the Greeks.The story of Solomon’s rise is one of wisdom, peace, fulfillment and beauty. The decent of Solomon is one of war, oppression overindulgence, idolatry, and misery. Solomon traded away a part of Israel's land, while annexing other’s cities (requiring him amass chariots and horsemen), enslaved the Canaanites, accumulated large amounts of gold and sliver, had relations with Egypt, married foreign women although Moses forbade it because â€Å"they would turn their hearts away from the Lord† and eventually began to worship their idols.All of this eventually ending in the destruction of Israel, leaving Judah for the â€Å"sake of David and Jerusalem†. Because of the blessing Solomon began with, and the glory he reached at his pinnacle, his fall was a much more tragic one. The Ten Commandments, and Justice define the problem associated with living in society. Their statement, however does not solve it. God g ives the laws to create an ideal society, Socrates gives the vision of the ideal city.It has been painfully demonstrated, not just through the accounts of Moses, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, but the entirety of human history, that this ideal is seemingly impossible to attain. The political philosophy expressed in the early Biblical narrative, through Revelation, the Greeks will come to understand (or at lease address) through Reason. The establishment of a government (either temporal or divine), the dangers of government, the relationship between the individual to the leader/state (and the leader’s responsibilities), forms of government, and the eventual decline of the state.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Research Knowledge and Assessment

This essay explores how these queries whitethorn be conceptualized, exposit, valuated, and explained by dint of investigative methods. Philosophy of investigate decimal scientific look relies on entropy taken from verifiable methods based on observation and experience (Myers & Hanson, 2002 Stanchion & Stanchion, 2003). These systematic empirical methods give the gate be practised as inferential mathematical tools for evaluating a render from a population. Consequently, the empirical calculations of phenomena in a sample may be employ to an entire population from which the sample was derived (Ho, 201 0, p. ). query Terminologies Certain terms in seek con none philosophical salutees to obtaining ND evaluating breeding. finished the scientific military operation, look studies begin by wording interrogative moods or hypotheses, then(prenominal) accumulation entropy to uphold answer the headers or test the hypotheses. Research info atomic number 18 collected, analyzed, and interpreted to r all(prenominal) conclusions (Ladino, Spaulding, & Vogel, 201 0, p. 12). However, soft and decimal studies have similarities and dissimilarities in the scientific process due to the unlike cognitive come outes in look designs.Qualitative studies apply inductive argument while denary studies apply deductive logic (p. 10). Figure 1 beautifys the specifics, similarities, and differences of these concepts in qualitative and quantitative question paradigms. The scientific method, illustrated in figure 2, acquires and assesses knowledge by nitty-gritty of observation and experience (Drew, Yardman, & Hose, 2008). The philosophy Of profitableness utilizes aspects of the scientific method in hearty question.Positivist lookers believe that only what is discovered brush aside be evaluated in an objective manner. This means that only observable behavior ass be measured without regard to motives, perspectives, or feelings (Social Research Metho ds, 2006). Conversely, post positivist philosophy does not believe that Objectivity is unfailing because knowledge is positive by tender constructs and this knowledge throw outnot be divorced from personal perceptions which determine the legitimacy of wisdom (Ryan, 2006, p. 16).The precede supposements suggest that post-positivists believe deductions from observations may be relative and inexact (p. 20). This lends credence to subjectiveness in research military ratings (Ratter, 2002). Objectivity in Objectivity elicit be described as a mental state in which personal biases, preferences, and perspectives of tecs do not contaminate the election and outline of data (Sociology Guide, 2014). Objectivity is paramount in ensuring the honesty of a body of work. However, in social and raisingal studies, objectivity presupposes a shell of domain (Ratter, 2002).If that reality is created by the researcher or observer, then it may be more(prenominal) subjective than objective ( p. 3). These ideas exemplify the challenges progression by those in qualitative or mixed-methods studies who must judge the depth or the breadth and depth of research findings, singly (Walden University, n. D. ). Though quantitative research may appear objective through the use of thematic calculations, subjectivity may fall out in deciding what data argon to be measured and the causes of measuring instruments to be active (Slashing, 2003).Philosophical Developments in Research scientific realism is a quantitative approach to research in which numeric formulas argon employ to analyze data, and these data be used to symbolize constructs and variables (Ladino, Spaulding, & Vogel, 2010). Positivists utilize the tenets of scientific realism because they feel that the social and mental world push aside be evaluated mathematically in the same steering that quantitative research explains phenomena in the natural world Social constructivism states that phenomena must be cht honianstood (P. 3). As complex wholes and researchers must derive reality through the perspectives of the participants in a study. Social constructivism advocates hypotheses that ar created to achieve sum through multiple realities formed by diverse human perceptions in a social world. Social constructivism is uncouthly employed in ethnographers and early(a) types of social research. advocacy and liberating textiles besides accept a numerosity of realities derived from social, economic, cultural, and political milieus.This philosophy involves research that advocates immunity from oppression and is a common example for genteelness research studies involving minorities or socially oppressed groups of people (Fire, 1970). Pragmatism is not focused on defining a real or socially constructed reality, scarcely seeks practical answers to promulgate correct practices and chopines (Ladino, Spaulding, & Vogel, 201 0, p. 16). Pragmatists often use a mixed-methods approach to rese arch for analyzing quantitative and qualitative data. Case studies utilize the methods of pragmatism (p. 60). Conceptual and Theoretical Frameworks A framework can be created through Concepts or theories (Ladino, Spaulding, & Vogel, 2010, p. 13). A conceptual framework shows ideas or variables in a corpulent and ensuant manner, whereas a suppositional framework focuses on identifying the possible relationships among the ideas or concepts and develops theories for these relationships (Niagara, 2012). These theories post a foundation for the beginnings of an investigation and help maintain a focus for the command of a study.A conceptual framework can also be defined as a structure that describes the natural development of a phenomenon through a theory-based framework that gives an explanation of how some constituents of the phenomenon may be revived (Camp, 2001). In summary, a conceptual framework may crystalise concepts Of a study yet it does not explain the relationships among the ideas or variables, whereas a theoretic framework can explain the associations among variables and how these associations relate to the research investigation (Science, n. D. ).Core Concepts of Research number The research question is the footing for the research study and should include ethical guidelines (Ladino, Spaulding, & Vogel, 201 0, p. 388). It identifies pendant and independent variables in causal-comparative search and it targets variables that atomic number 18 expected to be link in correlation studies (up. 388-389). In quantitative studies, the research question is clarified by the conjecture which is a declarative statement or tentative position of the identified trouble (Drew, Yardman, & Hose, 2008, p. 78). Unlike quantitative investigations, the research questions in qualitative studies focus more on processes than on outcomes (p. 389). erstwhile the research question has been refined to a specific idea, then the statement Of consumption for the st udy can be expressed in light-colored and concise terms (Ladino, Spaulding, & Vogel, 2010, p. 89). The specificity of the research question and the distinct purpose of the study be derivatives of the literature review which mainly focuses on primary, peer-reviewed articles related to the research question.Population and Sample inferential statistics utilizes a subset from a population called a sample. Research results derived from the sample may be generalized to the population from which it was derived. However, in fix up for a study to produce entire results and conclusions from a sample, it is important to differentiate surrounded by a theoretical population and an handy population Social Research Methods, 2006). The theoretical population should possess well-defined characteristics related to the variables to be studied in the sample.An complaisant population may be in stock(predicate) for a study, but if its traits atomic number 18 not circumscribed within the sample i t produces, the trueness of the research is comport used (Expellable, 2009). Variables and Research If endings A variable is an object or entity that has different quantitative or qualitative values depending on the circumstance in a study (Ho, 2010, p. 127). In larnal research, a variable can also be defined as a measurable hypothetical concept (construct) that has been developed from a theoretical framework (Ladino, Spaulding, & Vogel, 2010, p. 3). When these variables argon translated into data, the findings can be account quantitatively, qualitatively, or quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative findings atomic number 18 numerical in nature and can be reported through Pearson-product moment correlations, multiple-regression analysis, t-test, chi-squargon, and other tests (p. 305). Qualitative findings may be reported through the use of triangulation techniques, coding, themes, and other procedures (up. 189-193).Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations Assumptions a rgon constituents of a study which may not be under the control of the researcher, but their disappearance in a study would make it irrelevant (Simon, 2011). Limitations are ungovernable, authority weaknesses in a study, whereas delimitations are controllable characteristics that limit the scope and define the boundaries of a study (p. 2). This is why these three factors must be considered when research is conducted. severity and Reliability Validity describes the accuracy and appropriateness of measures while dependableness refers to the consistency of the measuring rods (Ladino, Spaulding, & Vogel, 2010). In quantitative research, validness can be defined in terms of a construct which determines the type of data to be collected and the stylus in which the nurture is to be pull together (Winner & Braun, 1998). Validity in qualitative research was defined by Slashing (2003) as quality, rigor and trustworthiness (p. 02). The internal validity of a study can be affected by ob servations, selection of informants for upper limit variability, selection Of participants, and improper or false conclusions, whereas external validity can be influenced by types of selection procedures, kinds of settings n which experiments are conducted, historical consequences from the lives of participants, and the variations in the meanings of constructs across time, surroundingss, and populations (Michael, n. D. ).Reliability can be illustrated through consistent results later repeated evaluations show a continual stability of measurements for a given expiration of time (Kirk & Miller, 1986). Reliability has been defined by Cope (2000) as The extent to which results are consistent over time and accurately represent the union population under study If the results of a study can be reproduced under a animal methodology, then the research instrument is also considered to be reliable. (p. 1). However, Slashing (2003) cautions that a research instrument which measures consi stently may not be measuring accurately.Hence, these inaccuracies of measurement make the research instrument hinder and controvert the internal consistency and reliability of the research. Internal reliability can be affected by inference descriptors, a researchers selections of data, and the interpretations of the data by the researcher (Bloom, n. D. ). away reliability can be influenced by situational contexts that effect the culture retrieved from participants, data collection, analysis methodology, and constructs (Slashing, 2003).Other Approaches to Unlike research investigations, chopineme evaluations are critiqued regarding their immediate impact on what was observed and studied (Ladino, Spaulding, & Vogel, 2010). A program can be defined as a group of dilate activities with measurable objectives (p. 363). The purpose of evaluating a program is to make a decision on a parentage of save, whereas a research study provides information about a particular point or practic e. Program valuations use constructive and summarize processes. These processes involve collecting information while the program occurs and measuring results at the end of the program to determine owe those outcomes related to the overall Program and its conquest. (p. 366). Once these processes have been deduced, the findings can be used to improve education There are evaluation rides that can be apply through practices. These fictile and summarize approaches. all vexs of evaluation contribute to the development of the evaluation plan, capacity, data collection, data, analysis, and reporting procedures of the study. The most common model for program evaluation is the objective-based approach which assesses the overall purpose of the program and defines the type of information to be collected for evaluation.This approach also utilizes benchmarks or quantitative goals that participants are expected to obtain to ensure the success of the program. Among other program evaluation templates, the logic model measures progress at each phase of the curriculum while ope rational number on the assumption that a rational sequence Of events must happen in order to produce the final results of the program (p. 373). These sequences of events begin with resources or inputs which create dos or activities that lead to changes in the participants (p. 374).These changes or outcomes master the efficacy or inefficacy of the program. In other words, the logic approach is a picture of how the program works through the theories and assumptions underlying the program (W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2004). The logic model is commonly used for program evaluations in health education because it can illustrate the infrastructure of a program model while integrating the activities of the clinical educators and patients (Centers or Diseases Control and Prevention, 1 999) A detailed logic model can jeopardise claims of causality and be a basis for estimating the programs effect on endp oints that are not directly measured but are linked in a causal chain supported by prior research Logic models can be created to display a program at different levels of detail, from different perspectives, or for different audiences. (p. 9). It is imperative in health education to identify causal relationships among variables of patient sustainment and clinical erudition paradigms. This is why the logic approach is such a satisfactory choice for evaluating these types of programs.Program evaluations possess benefits and shortcomings. One good of program evaluations is the immediate application of the information to a setting or environment for implementing improvements and other efficacious changes. Examples of disadvantages in program evaluations include the lack of available assets for change program deficiencies identified through formative processes and the subjectivity of an internal evaluator who may have preconceived ideas about what the program outcomes should be. The focus of effective education is action (Spencer, n. . ). Action research in education has been scribed as research accomplished by teachers to provide insights for themselves (Mills, 201 1). It is also a way for teachers to work collaboratively with each other with education administrators, and with stakeholders to improve classroom instruction and the learning potential of students (C. A. R. Madison Metropolitan check District, 2010). The primary purpose of action research is to change and improve educational environments and outcomes (Ladino, Spaulding, & Vogel, 2010).The stages in conducting action research are sequential and cyclical (Classroom Action Research, 2012). These steps are illustrated in Figure 3. The diagram in the illustration implies important ideas regarding the structure of action research. This Structure should include ways to understandably define an issue, to challenge the assumptions and views of the researcher conducting the study, to develop a concise pla n for data collection, to encourage collaboration between the researcher and peers, and to provide evidence for practice improvement (Ladino, Spaulding, & Vogel, 2010).