Saturday, August 31, 2019
To determine the hardenability of plain carbon steel. Theory Hardenability is the ability of a steel to be hardened and form martensite during quenching. Hardenability indicates the depth of hardness which is obtained from quenching process, and it is very important to the components of machine especially tool steel. One of the methods to determine the hardenability of steels is Jominy End-Quench Test. Hardening usually involves quenching where the steel is heated to austenite phase and fast cooling in the quench medium such as water, oil, salt solution, or air to produce microstructure of martensite. The martensite gives hard and brittle properties of steel. Usually, for heavy steel components, the hardness decreases at the core of component because the microstructure formed is ferrite and pearlite. While at the surface of the component have higher hardness. The difference of the hardness between the core and surface can be explained by Continuous Cooling Transformation or CCT diagram of the steel. If the cooling rate of steel does not cross the transformation curve of the diagram, then the hardness on the whole steel can be obtained. CCT diagrams allow prediction of the final microstructure of the steel taking into account the continuous nature of the process during cooling of austenite. Other than that, CCT diagrams take into consideration continuous cooling during quenching; the cooling curve assumes a constant cooling rate. As we can see from the diagram, martensite form at the temperature below than 200? C, it mean that the specimen with faster cooling rate will able to form more martensite and higher hardness. Continuous Cooling Transformation diagram | | The above diagram show the time-temperature isothermal transformation diagram for the plain carbon steel Apparatus Specimen of plain carbon steel, furnace, Jominy End-Quench Unit, and Vickers Harness Tester. Experimental Procedure (a) Heat the specimen to temperature of 850Ã °C and soak at that temperature for 20 minutes. After that, its remain almost constant while the distance increase. In our experiment, there are some test errors where we are having small rise in our reading of the hardenability value which suppose decrease continuously. This is due to the uneven surface of the tested specimen or cause by the unbalanced cooling rate throughout the specimen. (b) Gives your opinion on the correlation between cooling rate of specimen and the graph obtained. The cooling rate at the end of the plain carbon steel are much higher compare to the. Thus, in the graph it shows the highest hardness at the early stage and then slowly decreases when approaching to the core of the steel. We also can say that, at the end of the steel has the highest hardness which cause by the high content of martensite. However, the content of the martensite and hardness will drop when approaching to the centre of the steel. We can conclude that the cooling rate decreases from the end-quench to the centre of the steel, resulting in decreasing of the hardness.
Friday, August 30, 2019
An approach to the costing and monitoring of activities which involves tracing resource consumption and costing final outputs. Resources are assigned to activities, and activities to cost objects based on consumption estimates. The latter utilise cost drivers to attach activity costs to outputs.Ã¢â¬â¢ Activity-based costing (ABC) is a costing methodology that identifies activities in an organization and assigns the cost of each activity with resources to all products and services according to the actual consumption by each. This model assigns more indirect costs(overhead) into direct costs compared to conventional costing. CIMA Official Terminology, 2005 A development of the principles of activity based costing (ABC) is activity based management (ABM). Operational ABM is defined as: Ã¢â¬ËActions, based on activity driver analysis, that increase efficiency, lower costs and/or improve asset utilisation.Ã¢â¬â¢ CIMA Official Terminology, 2005 Strategic ABM is defined as:Ã¢â¬ËActions, based on activity based cost analysis, that aim to change the demand for activities so as to improve profitability.Ã¢â¬â¢ CIMA Official Terminology, 2005 The main focus of this topic gateway is ABC. However, the development of ABC into ABM will be discussed further under Application. The concept of ABC was first defined in the late 1980s by Robert Kaplan and William Burns. Initially ABC focused on manufacturing industry where technological developments and productivity improvements had reduced the proportion of direct labour and material costs, but increased the proportion of indirect or overhead costs. Comparison of traditional costing and ABC The traditional method of costing relied on the arbitrary addition of a proportion of overhead costs on to direct costs to attain a total product cost. The traditional approach to cost allocation relies on three basic steps. 1. Accumulate costs within a production or non-production department. 2. Allocate non-production costs to production departments. 3. Allocate the resulting production department costs to various products, services or customers. This type of costing system usually allocates costs based on a single volume measure, such as direct labour hours or machine hours. While using such a simplistic volume measure to allocate overheads as an overall cost driver, this approach seldom meets the cause-and-effect criteria desired in accurate cost allocation. This method of costing has become increasing inaccurate as the relative proportion of overhead costs has risen. This distortion of costs can result in inappropriate decision making. ABC is therefore an alternative approach to the traditional method or arbitrary allocation of overheads to product, services and customers. AIM of the model With ABC, an organization can soundly estimate the cost elements of entire products and services. That may help inform a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to either: * Identify and eliminate those products and services that are unprofitable and lower the prices of those that are overpriced (product and service portfolio aim) * Or identify and eliminate production or service processes that are ineffective and allocate processing concepts that lead to the very same product at a better yield (process re-engineering aim). In a business organization, the ABC methodology assigns an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s resource costs through activities to the products andservices provided to its customers. ABC is generally used as a tool for understanding product and customer cost and profitability based on the production or performing processes. As such, ABC has predominantly been used to support strategic decisions such as pricing, outsourcing, identification and measurement of process improvement initiatives. Application In contrast to traditional cost accounting systems, ABC systems first accumulate overheads for each organisational activity. They then assign the costs of these activities to products, services or customers (referred to as cost objects) causing that activity. The initial activity analysis is clearly the most difficult aspect of ABC. Activity analysis is the process of identifying appropriate output measures of activities and resources (cost drivers) and their effects on the costs of making a product or providing a service. ABC systems have the flexibility to provide special reports so that management can take decisions about the costs of designing, selling and delivering a product or service. The key aspect is that ABC focuses on accumulating costs via activities, whereas traditional cost allocation focuses on accumulating costs within functional areas. The main advantage of ABC is that it minimises or avoids distortions on product costs that might occur from arbitrary allocation of overhead costs. Steps in development of an ABC System ABC uses cost drivers to assign the costs of resources to activities and unit cost as a way of measuring an output. There are four steps to implementing ABC. 1. Identify activities The organisation needs to undertake an in-depth analysis of the operating processes of each responsibility centre. Each process might consist of one or more activities required to produce an output. 2. Assign resource costs to activities This involves tracing costs to cost objects to determine why the cost occurred. Costs can be categorised in three ways: i. Direct Ã¢â¬â costs that can be traced directly to one output. For example, the wood and paint that it takes to make a chair. ii. Indirect Ã¢â¬â costs that cannot be allocated to an individual output, that is, they benefit two or more outputs, but not all outputs. For example, maintenance costs or storage costs. iii. General/administration Ã¢â¬â costs that cannot be associated with any product or service. These costs are likely to remain unchanged, whatever output is produced. For example, salaries of administration staff, security costs or depreciation. 3. Identify outputs Identify all of the output for which an activity segment performs activities and consumes resources. Outputs might be products, services or customers. 4. Assign activity costs to outputs This is done using activity drivers. Activity drivers assign activity costs to outputs (cost objects) based on the consumption or demand for activities. ABC in practice Steps to implement Activity-Based costing 1. Identify and assess ABC needs Ã¢â¬â Determine viability of ABC method within an organization. 2. Training requirements Ã¢â¬â Basic training for all employees and workshop sessions for senior managers. 3. Define the project scope Ã¢â¬â Evaluate mission and objectives for the project. 4. Identify activities and drivers Ã¢â¬â Determine what drives what activity. 5. Create a cost and operational flow diagram Ã¢â¬â How resources and activities are related to products and services. 6. Collect data Ã¢â¬â Collecting data where the diagram shows operational relationship. 7. Build a software model, validate and reconcile. 8. Interpret results and prepare management reports. 9. Integrate data collection and reporting. ABC activities have been around for nearly 20 years and many companies in a variety of sectors have implemented activity based thinking. ABC and ABM have brought about radical changes in cost management systems. The principles and philosophies of activity based thinking apply equally to service companies, government agencies, process and manufacturing industries. Management practices and methods have changed over the last decade and will continue to change. Organisations have moved from managing vertically to managing horizontally. There has also been a move from a function orientation to a process orientation. However, management information systems to track and provide information about the horizontal aspects of business have lagged significantly behind managersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. ABC and ABM fill this information gap by providing cost and operation information that mirrors a horizontal view.ABC focuses on accurate information about the true cost of products, services, processes, activities and customers. Using ABC, organisations gain a thorough understanding of their business processes and cost behaviour during ABC analysis. Management then applies this insight to improve decision making at operating and strategic levels. This is then known as ABM. Simply, ABM is ABC in action. HOW ABC IS USED IN THE ORGANISATION This detailed study of how organisations are practically applying ABC can be found on the BetterManagement.com website (to access this study you must register, and then click on the link to activity based management in the top left hand corner of the home page). Available from: www.bettermanagement.com Accessed 4 November 2008] The study was carried out in July 2005 to determine the state of ABC within over 500 organisations across numerous industries of different sizes and locations. It provides a useful and interesting insight into how ABC is used in organisations. Reported benefits Ã¢â¬ ¢ ABC provides a more accurate method of costing of products and services. It allows for a better and more comprehensive understanding of overheads and what causes them to occur. Ã¢â¬ ¢ It makes costly and non-value adding activities more visible, so allowing managers to focus on these areas to reduce or eliminate them. Ã¢â¬ ¢ It supports other management techniques such as continuous improvement, scorecards and performance management. Reported drawbacks Ã¢â¬ ¢ ABC can be difficult and time consuming to collect the data about activities and cost drivers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ It can be costly to implement, run and manage an ABC system. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Even in ABC some overhead costs are difficult to assign to products and customers. These costs still have to be arbitrarily applied to products and customers.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
The journey of Cadbury started way back in the year 1905 from Bourneville, UK. But it came to Indian market in 1948. From the time it was introduced in India, Dairy Milk has been the market leader in the confectionery segment. It has average daily sales of 1 Million bars. The reason that our group chose Cadbury Dairy Milk for the Brand Audit is that it provides us with ample scope to study the various aspects of Branding like Communication Strategies, Innovative Ad Campaigns, and Emotional Connect with Consumers, Brand Repositioning, and Rebranding etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ We will study the evolution of Cadbury Dairy Milk by focusing on following Aspects: In 1824, John Cadbury opened a shop in Birmingham. This one-man business, trading mainly in Tea Coffee was to be the foundation of Cadbury Limited. For over 100 years Cadbury was a family business. In 1943 non family directors were appointed. In 1847, the enterprise had prospered to a large factory in Bridge Street, Birmingham. John Cadbury took his brother Benjamin into partnership and the family business became Cadbury Brothers Birmingham. The business moved to Bourneville after outgrowing the Bridge Street Factory. The Workforce had risen up to 200 after 32 years at Bridge Street. After the death of two brothers in 1899, the company was privatized. It entered the era of scientific management; it introduced new ideas for their department like: On 2nd February, Kraft Foods took over 71% shares of Cadbury. They acquired it totally. But still Cadbury was on top in the market. This acquisition did not changed peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and their craze for Cadbury Dairy Milk. OPERATIONS CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations are carried out in many countries. Few of them are: BRAND ELEMENTS Dairy Milk has been meticulously built around the world by Cadbury. It has been able to sustain a strong position in the market. There are many branding elements which have resulted into consistent result of its success. Few core Branding Elements are as given below: Not only the above three, But there are many more elements due to which the consistent Branding of Dairy Milk is so very popular. Its different Advertisements, its punch lines etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ It has always kept a strong association with Milk, with slogans such as Ã¢â¬Å"a glass and half of full cream milk in every half pound. And also advertisement which featured a glass of milk pouring out and forming the Dairy Milk bar. Also the ad campaigns are also the important element of Dairy Milk. It made chocolate an eating habit among the consumers, especially the adults. Long back it was a belief that chocolate is only for kids. But Dairy Milk changed this belief. Also they changed the trend of Sweets (Mithai) during the occasions like Diwali, New Year etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ Dairy Milk brought a new trend that whether any occasion, Dairy Milk is best for all. It also gave some famous dialogues from the ads which people remember always. They were also the core brand elements of Dairy Milk. Let us see them below: All these above dialogues were form the very famous and popular adÃ¢â¬â¢s of Dairy Milk. By this ad they wanted to covey to the people that for eating Dairy Milk they do not have to wait for any occasion. They can just have it. Whether they are happy or Sad, But Dairy Milk can be taken in any of the mood. BRAND PORTFOLIO Worldwide In June 1905, Cadbury launched its first Dairy Milk bar, with a higher proportion of milk and it became the best selling product of the company by 1913. Fruit and Nut was introduced in 1928. In 2003, Cadbury made Dairy Milk into a family brand by taking the brands like Caramel, Whole Nut, and Wispa and marketed them as the sub-brands of Dairy Milk. By 2006, there were 15 Dairy Milk sub-brands produced in UK including Shortcake Biscuit, Wafer, Orange Chips, Mint Chips, Crispies and Cream Egg. In following two years these brands were discontinued as they were not successful. Indian Market The Dairy Milk Brand alone accounts for approximately 33% of total CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s sales. It has made Cadbury the number one confectionery brand in the market. Currently in India, Dairy Milk has following sub-brands under its name. They are; BRAND POSITIONING The Brand Positioning of Cadbury Dairy Milk in mid 90Ã¢â¬â¢s was that chocolate is not only for kids but also for adults. And to prove this they immediately released the very popularÃ¢â¬ Real Taste of LifeÃ¢â¬ campaign , shifting the focus from Ã¢â¬Å"just for kidsÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å" kid in all of usÃ¢â¬ . Let us see the Brand Positioning of Dairy Milk on segmentation bases on two main bases. And they are: Demographic Dairy Milk silk is little higher in cost compared to ordinary Dairy Milk, Fruit and Nut and Crackle. But still people love to have Dairy Milk. Silk is the premium Brand of Dairy Milk Behavioral As we know that Dairy Milk is the only Brand who is the only one to promote chocolate as an important part of Festivals as well as it changed the mind sets of the people that chocolate is not only for kids but for all. The strategy to target adults was taken further with the help of a brand new positioning Ã¢â¬Å"Kuch Meetha Ho JayeÃ¢â¬ . For Indians occasions and festivals have utmost importance and Dairy Milk rigorously focused on this point and set a new trend of having Dairy Milk in place of Ã¢â¬Å"MithaiÃ¢â¬ during the occasions. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY Up to 2002, Cadbury was the one having 70 % market shares in chocolate industry. Out of which 30% was the Dairy Milk alone. This is because of constant re-invention of the brand bombarding communication towards the consumers consistently to maintain the top position in mind recall in confectionery segment. Dairy Milk was awarded as No. 1 most trusted brand in Mumbai 2005 for the edition of Brand EquityÃ¢â¬â¢s most trusted Brand Survey. Dairy Milk targeted all the aspects as possible to get into the heart of all the people, of all age groups. For this they communicated with people through different AdÃ¢â¬â¢s Campaigns. Let us see few of them below: Shubh Aarambh was one of successful campaigns of Dairy Milk. This means Auspicious Beginning. With this campaign they said that for whatever you start, start it with Dairy Milk and it will be successful. For this they chose the best to advertise: Amitabh Bacchhan. Tools for Communication Dairy Milk used different media options to communicate different campaigns and promote Dairy milk. They are: TV Advertisements is the most popular method for Dairy Milk to show their new campaigns to people so that they can more and more relate it with their personal lives. They also have ground promotions in different malls. They arrange some contests also to promote their brand. DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY As we know that Dairy Milk holds 30% value share of chocolate market. The demand of chocolate is increasing day by day. And Dairy Milk is no. 1 in that race. Indian market specifically where the penetration of chocolates is increasing, brings a need for efficiency in logistics and distribution. There is stiff competition in the confectionery market due to large exposure of foreign currency rate risk, mainly on account of import of cocoa beans, cocoa butter. Cadbury Dairy Milk is easily available anywhere in the market. CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s success of proper distribution is their efficiency. PRICING STRATEGY Dairy Milk is positioned towards age group of 4-50, and thus the price is accordingly kept affordable. Also it is easily accessible to all categories. Price range starts from Rs. 5 to Rs. 20 in different sizes. Cadbury Dairy Milk fruit and nut starts from Rs. 30. Dairy Milk Silk is a premium brand and thus the price of it is little higher that is Rs. 50. COMPETITORÃ¢â¬â¢S ANALYSIS In Indian Market, the main players in the confectionery market are Cadbury, Nestle, Candico, ITC and Parle. Let us see the competitors of Cadbury Dairy Milk in detail below Company Founded in Brand Portfolio Kraft Foods 1903 Cadbury Dairy Milk Variants, Eclairs, Bourn vita etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ Nestle 1860 Kitkat, Smarties Ferrero 1940 Rocher, Raffaelo, Nutella Amul 1945 Milk Chocolate, Fruit and Nut chocolate Candico 1997 Loco Poco Gum, Big Bubble ITC 2002(Confectionery Segment) Minto and Candy man Parle 1929 Melody, Mango Bite, Poppins, Kismi, Orange Candy POINT OF PARITY (POP) POINT OF DIFFERENCE (POD) POPÃ¢â¬â¢s PODÃ¢â¬â¢s OF CADBURY DAIRY MILK Point of Parity Point of Difference Chocolate manufacturing Legacy Goodwill Variants such as Fruit Nut, Dark Chocolate Emotional connect with customers Constant innovation in ads Generic name in Indian chocolate market Good quality products Campaigns targeting from kids to adults Association with milk Excellent distribution systems 2 Layer packaging Dairy Milk is the only one chocolate which says that in occasions also it can be used as sweet. BRAND EXPLORATORY Customer Knowledge Cadbury dairy Milk has been trying to get out of the image ofÃ¢â¬ Just another chocolateÃ¢â¬ and become something special in the minds of the people. They have also been trying to position themselves as chocolates for all age groups and not just kids. The campaign has successfully created a picture in the mind of the customers that Cadbury is not just a chocolate but means of celebrations. Sources of Brand Equity There are two main sources of Brand Equity and they are: Based on various search results, CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Dairy Milk not only enjoys high level of Brand Awareness but unaided Brand Recall. This level of recall is generated when Dairy Milk enjoys The Top of the Mind Effect. The Brand image of Cadbury Dairy Milk plays an important role in building the Brand Equity of Dairy Milk through the medium of unique brand associations. Right from Kuch Meetha Ho Jaye campaign to the recent Shubh Aarambh, Dairy Milk has managed to create strong, unique, and favorable brand associations in the minds of the consumers which is commendable. Brand Recall and Brand image are the strong supports that Dairy Milk has with its all time availability and attractive packaging which only adds to the Brand associations for the Dairy Milk and help build its Brand Equity. Two more important sources of Brand Equity are: \ BRAND AMBASSADORS As we know that previously Dairy Milk was only considered as Chocolate, but their new campaign has changed this perception of consumers. As discussed above now Dairy Milk is considered as Traditional sweet of Indian culture(Mithai) which people give to their near and dear ones on the occasions and now they use Dairy Milk as sweet(Mithai). Brand Ambassador chosen for Dairy Milk is none other than Megastar Amitabh Bacchhan. He endorsed the brand so successfully that everyone loved the brand much more than they did. The endorsement has successfully captured the Indian festivals like Rakshabandhan, Diwali, Wedding, Birthdays etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ Now people give Dairy Milk as token of love, care and affection to their friends and family. DAIRY MILK MENTAL MAP These three form the mental map of Dairy Milk which associates with them the different aspects. Let us see them in detail: CBBE MODEL BRAND MANTRA OF DAIRY MILK SWOT ANALYSIS Strength Weakness Dairy milk is owned by Cadbury which is a globally established brand name known for its manufacturing competency and leadership in innovation. The recent acquisition of Cadbury by Kraft Foods may result in somewhat negative effect on the brand. Dairy Milk has been able to establish a clear and consistent Brand Image over the years. Dairy Milk is somewhat lacking in other emerging markets. It has strong command over its brand image in India and Europe But other places it is lacking. It offers quality product with innovations with crafted communication campaign Certain segment feel that price of Dairy Milk is high and compared to that Amul Milk chocolate is preferred. Dairy Milk has huge command over its distribution network spanning across India. Dairy Milk also enjoys a great Brand Recall value when comes to chocolates with Milk. Threats Opportunities Increasing competition from international brands is biggest threat to Dairy Milk To introduce sugar free category is biggest opportunity for Dairy Milk. Highly price sensitive nature of the industry. Dairy Milk can innovate more by bringing international flavors so that is also gets an opportunity to compete with this threat as well. BRAND STRATEGIES The marketing strategy that a business uses must reflect the objectives of the business as a whole. These strategies must therefore be consistent with the wider corporate objectives of the organization. Strategies are likely to be influenced by the attitudes of decision makers towards matters such as the desirability of risk and change. Such attitudes are influenced not only by the environment within which a business operates but also by the views of Managers and Directors and the culture of business itself. External influences also play a major role in any products advertising, its position in the market. They range from consumers to press and media, and also health and safety laws. PEST Analysis will more clearly throw light on external environment and global factors that may affect Dairy MilkÃ¢â¬â¢s Business. This will give a quick and visual representation of the external pressures facing the business and their possible constraints on strategy. PEST means: Political Factors Cadbury at the time of finalizing any marketing strategy will have to think of different political factors regionally, nationally and internationally.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 - Essay Example However, the Indian Removal Act 1830 evidently violated the US constitution as the Indians were removed from their land by force. Overview To illustrate, Ã¢â¬Å"the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was the culmination of a decades-long struggle between white and Native Americans over who would control vast tracts of territory that had been Native American lands for many centuriesÃ¢â¬ (Tucker, 2011, p.381). As per the provisions of the Act, tens of thousands of the Native Americans were forcibly removed from the east of the Mississippi River. This Act made the prior treaties between the US government and the Native American groups void and the government tried to form new treaties that would better serve the interests of whites. The Act directly affected the Five Civilized Tribes including Choctaws, Cherokees, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles as they were the main inhabitants of the east Mississippi river. This agricultural land was extremely fruitful for crops like cotton, and many sou therners including some wealthy planters strongly desired the ownership of the land. Although the US Supreme Court had ruled that Native American tribes were sovereign nations and hence State law would not apply to them, President Jackson ignored the court decision and executed forceful removal of Native Americans from their land. Although the Indian Removal Act 1830 was an inhumane course of action that hurt the constitutional rights of people lived at the east Mississippi, it had also some positive effects on American Indian group. The Act and thereby forceful removal of Indians from their territory assisted them to escape from the depredations of whites to some extent. In addition, this change benefited the American Indians to resettle in a region where they could administer themselves without any external pressure. At the same time, the forceful removal adversely affected the economy as well as the social interest of the American Indian group. The American Indians had possessed fruitful agricultural fields until the time of the Act and therefore the forceful removal caused them to experience huge economic losses. In addition to the land loss, they were also forced to leave their homes and livestock behind and this situation caused them to lose what they had built over thousands of years. Historians reveal that this group was relocated to an area which no one needed that time. From an economic point of view, the nation lost several million dollars as part of this law enforcement. Furthermore, this arbitrary law amendment questioned the constitutional rights of American Indian group in the United States. Undoubtedly, the Indian Removal Act 1830 curtailed the fundamental human rights and constitutional rights of the American Indians. Out of the seven principles of the constitution, the seventh principle has specifically defined individual rights.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
PNC Financial Service - Essay Example Value creation for creating a system that would ensure the level of productivity and integrity ultimately needed, so that the customer base would be able to see their own bottom line continue to grow and prosper. With many banks, large and small, finding it harder to survive in the current economic state, PNC Bank would seek to stay within the realm of effective and responsible banking practices. According to an article in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, while reiterated the current state of affairs within the banking community, in regard to PNC itself, "Still, the region's biggest bank will remain disciplined and resist making "stupid," risky loans, Mr. Rohr Said during a Barclays Capitol investor conference in New York City," (Sabatini, 2010). With the statement in itself that would work toward the concern of meeting investors expectations of being able to trust the solvency of the institutions that they seek to do business with. Going on further to state that, "Mr.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Hypothesis - Assignment Example Iranian, are also pro-American, attacking the nuclear projects would result in many causalities since they are spread out which would again turn the Iranian citizens against America (Helman, 1). From this the first hypothesis can be developed. Other reasons why America may not launch an attack on Iran are that it would be against the international law of self defense where countries are only allowed to attack others when there are justifiable threats. This is not true for Israel since Iran is still one year away from producing nuclear weapons. Attacking Iran openly would also drive their activities underground which would create a more adverse threat to the world security (Helman, 1). From this, the second hypothesis can be developed. Helman, Christopher. Ã¢â¬Å"Israel has Nuclear Weapon but only Iran has nuclear PowerÃ¢â¬ . Forbes. 21st October 2012. http://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2012/10/21/does-anyone-care-about-irans-nuclear-energy-program/ (accessed
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Determination the structure of BPSL1549 - Lab Report Example Also, detecting and controlling the bacterium is difficult since it can survive outside host organisms (Buetow, et al., 2001). As connoted, the disease Melioidosis is caused by a protein found in the bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei. The protein is dubbed BPSL1549. This protein makes the bacterial to be very lethal. The disease Melioidosis is manifest in two modes of pathogenesis. The acute phase that is characterized but high mortality rates and the latent phase (Buetow, et al., 2001). In the latent phase, there is self-secretion of the bacteria in the infected host and only affects the infected host in form of a disease when the individual immune system is compromised such as during other infections, during organ transplant and during old age. Latent phase has been found to have a long life span that can go up to fifty years (Wongtrakoongate, et al., 2007). There is no detailed documentation describing the pathogenesis of the bacteria. Despite this, the genome of then bacteria has been sequenced and as a result, large and small chromosomes have been identified. By sequence similarity, its genes have been found to be similar to various other organisms. The similarity has shown that the bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei is closely related to the bacteria B., pseudomallei, which is not pathogenic. Therefore, in depth analysis of the genes has to be done to facilitate a comparative analysis of the genes of these two bacteria to found out the function of the genes. One of the gene that is analysed in this experiment is BPSL1549 (Cruz, et al., 2011). This experimentÃ¢â¬â¢s major objective is to determine the protein structure of the gene BPSL1549 using the protein crystallography method of Seleno Ã¢â¬â methionine multi - wavelength anomalous dispersion. The results will be compared against a database containing known structure of genes
Annotated Bibliography for Staff and Skills - Essay Example In addition, it also forms an essential supplier of cooking gas in the country delivering to over 62.4 million numbers of households in the country. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s research and development centre which is located at Faridabad generates the most outstanding of technologies and solutions for the various operating divisions of the company and to its customers throughout the country and also abroad. The organizational structure of Indian Oil is rather flat with very few levels of management intervention between the staffs and the management. Instead of being supervised through numerous management layers, staffs are greatly involved with the decision making process of the company. The company is known for nurturing employee involvement through a decentralized decision making process (IOCL, 2012). Indian Oil- Structure, Strategy, System, Style Indian Oil represents a flat hierarchical structure which is primarily functional in nature. The company is divided into units and subunits ac cording to their areas of functions. The company has equal presence both in the refineries as well as marketing segments. With the help of an integrated supply chain model the organization integrates between its various divisions and functional units. Each division is headed by a Director who is responsible for reporting to the Chairman. The importance of differentiating between the various functional divisions is that they maintain their own knowledge and technology for producing their own products. Each of the functional divisions also caters to their own markets and areas of operation. However, there is ample integration between the various functional units. Interlinked through an effective communication and information system, the organization enhances knowledge sharing between each functional component. The functional organizational structure has each unit operating their own marketing divisions. These marketing segments operate according to the conditions and situations where they function and the markets in which they operate (Klassen & Menor, 2005, p.411). Role of the Leader/Management in Indian Oil The management and leadership programs in Indian Oil represent a participative style of leadership. Decision making by the management is particularly designed for acquiring the views and suggestions of employees of the organization. Employee empowerment programs are made crucial components of the HR practices and strategies of the corporation. This is done with the aim to acquire strong commitment and devotion of employees towards the organization. Also the accountability, responsibility and liability of employees as decision makers of strategies and work processes are greatly enhanced through this system. However, the presence strong business leaders in the company cannot be ruled out. It is guided and directed through a handful of very strong and competent business leaders who provide strategic direction to the company. Particularly during the presence of crisis situations and fluctuations in business conditions, the role of the management played a crucial role in handling the turmoil situations effectively. Also effective leadership and management control played a role in exploiting the adverse economic conditions for capturing some of the emerging markets in the country. The company also demonstrates an effective and strong human resource management system
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Marketing - Essay Example This was a great experience because I was able to master my customers and the products they preferred best and disliked most. Marketing intermediary refers to the involvement of a retailer or a wholesaler in the flow of goods to the consumer. This is the marketing channel that I have been involved in whereby I am a distributor of mineral water for a certain company in our local state (McCalley pp.6-92). Marketing channels solve logistical problems in availing goods to the consumer. This is because they facilitate physical distribution and sorting of goods. Moreover, they also offer facilitative advantages in that they may source of vital information relevant to a business about competition, channel members and customers. . It is also a great experience to research how customers respond to a new product in the distribution business and the grocery shop currently run by mum. These channels are of great benefit to intermediaries in terms of finance since goods can be sold and purchased on credit and financed as they are being sold. In my distributorship business I always encountered financial problems, but courtesy of receiving goods with a 30 days credit payment terms I remained in business Moreover they are opportunities for business to promote their products and companies by offering discounts, advertisement, gifts and after sale services. In several occasions I had to provide discounts to my customers and I realized that with that customers always bought more because products were a little bit cheaper. Most businesses do make profits through giving rewards to their customers as they gain competitive advantage. Marketing channels offers a chance for organization to contact and understand their customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs which goes a long way in facilitating matching supply and demand. Matching the demand and the supply of products leads to efficiency and effectiveness of
Friday, August 23, 2019
Analysis of the Economic Impact of the Major Social Problem of Poverty - Assignment Example Indeed, the article vividly shows that the government of New York City must aid the residents in their desire to climb out of their current poverty debacle. Subject: Business Topic: Article Analysis Introduction In terms of discussing the model or economic theory that relates to the issue presented in the news article, the economic theory in focus is a supply and demand theory. As prices of goods and services increase, the demand for the products and services decrease. Likewise, as the prices of goods and services increase, the supply of the goods and services increase (Arnold, 2008). In terms of discussing what economic theory states and predicts about the issue presented in the news article, as the prices of goods and services increase, the poverty level people will reduce their demand for the higher priced products. On the other hand, as the prices of goods and services increase, the business entities are eager to supply more services and goods in order to generate more profits (B oyes, 2010). Analysis of the Economic Impact of the Major Social Problem of Poverty The April 12, 2012 issue of the New York Times article is reflection on poverty. The title of the article is New York CityÃ¢â¬â¢s Poverty Rate Rises, Study Finds (Roberts, 2012). The paper shows strong evidence there has been an increasing number of New York residents joining the ranks of the poor over the last years. The number of New York City residents has literally increased by 100,000 individuals. With the increase, the poverty ratio soared by as much as 1.3 percent. The new poverty rate is 21 percent. The percent indicates that one out of every five New York residents qualifies as poor. The article further states that New York has one of the highest poverty levels in the U.S. Once New York has implemented a more detailed description which defines who can be classified as a poor individual, current New York CityÃ¢â¬â¢s statistics of the poor has the largest annual rise in poverty ratio. As J an Windebank emphasized, Ã¢â¬Å"Throughout the advanced economies, the widespread consensus is that employment is the best route out of poverty. Not only are the approaches of both the Old Left and New Right grounded in such a belief, but so too is the employment-focused third way approach of New Labor. In this book, however, our intention is to begin to explain why an alternative third way discourse has started to emerge that rejects an employment-centered approach to poverty alleviationÃ¢â¬ (Windebank, 2003). The current recession, which started in 2008, is blamed as the major culprit for the ballooning of the poor individuals in New York City. The recession brought a lot of the United States companies into the unfavorable quagmire of bankruptcy. With bankruptcy enveloping some of the companies in the United States skies, those that cannot innovate are forced to close shops. With the closing of the shops, many employees are retrenched. With the loss of their jobs, the retrenche d employees could not afford to retain their previous lifestyle. The retrenched employees had to join the long line of New Yorkers waiting for their turn to grab a set of food coupons. With the slowing of the United States economic wheel into a snailÃ¢â¬â¢s pace, statistics showed that one out of every four New York residents, under the age of 18 years, joined the poor of New York, the city that never sleeps. New York CityÃ¢â¬â¢s Center for Economic Opportunity reported the latest poverty report. Likewise, the 2008 U.S. Economic crisis is
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Demographic Trend Essay The demographic trends that will have an influential impact on the needs of human services in the future will be growth and change in the populations of seniors. Person 65 and over is expected to double in size within the next 25 years in the United States population. According the (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009), Hispanic older adults is likely to go from 2.2 million in 2004 to over 15 million by 2050. It is expected to be the largest minority amongst older people by 2028. Some current trends of human service delivery that will be impacted and accentuated will be among seniors. There will be more women than men, have increased educational levels, they will probably lead active lives, live independent and be more healthy. Changes in the population will have challenges for human services during the next 50 years. Some areas will be income assistance, health care, housing, employment, the way we take part in leisure opportunities and environmental modification. The real median income for older citizens fell 2.8% for men and 3.6% for women and incomes are expected to keep declining. Human services such as mobile meal delivery and home health care make it easy for many older individuals to stay in the homes that they own or rent. Many would like to Ã¢â¬Å"age in placeÃ¢â¬ . Older Americans are choosing to not live with their adult children; they do not want to lose their independence. Assisted living institutions help the aged to obtain and keep their independence. They keep their personal space and have social services to aid them with leisure activities, social support and cultural values. As we enter the Human Service profession we will see clients and other professionals who are different from ourselves. They were raised in other countries, have different economic backgrounds, speak various languages and be of various ages and genders. They would have entered the United States under unique circumstances. Human Services are available to more clients of diversified natures in rural areas, the military, schools and the work place for which all of these increase clients who will need these services and the professionals who can provide them. Community-based services were first introduced to clients with mental illness and who were deinstitutionalized. Today the criminal justice system, the developmentally disabled and seniors are all a part of these services. In rural areas there will always beÃ barriers of service delivery which include limited availability of workers, distances between clients and those who provide the services, cost, and issues of confidentiality and in what way the care will be carried out. We as a society must find ways to tackle and progress towards a solution to keep these barriers from overwhelming us to prevent the human services that are so badly needed by many. The following is from (An In troduction to Human Services, Chapter 3). Table 3.3 Summary Points Trends The effect of urbanization in poor countries will contribute to create difficulties in meeting the basic needs of people. Demographic shifts in the United States raise questions about immigration policies, language, employment and entitlement programs. One important shift is the growth and change of the older population, which indicates an increase in the number of seniors as well as changes in characteristics. Economic downturns create human service challenges for individuals and families. Clients will remain active participants in human service delivery. Advocacy as a helping skill continues to increasingly important. The Mental Health PatientÃ¢â¬â¢s Bill of Rights covers issues such as the right to know, confidentiality, choice, determination of treatment, nondiscrimination and treatment review. Through the use of all professionals equally sharing the burden of distributing these services as needed, will depend on the cooperation of all those involved whether it is direct contac t or through the use of referrals of other organizations. An Introduction of Human Services, Seventh Edition, Chapter 3, Human Services Today. The U.S. Census Bureau (2009) _ HYPERLINK Http://www.nationalhumanservices.org _Http://www.nationalhumanservices.org_
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Cyber Warfare Examples Essay Information Warfare,in its most fundamental sense, is the emerging theatre in which future nation-against-nation conflict at the strategic level is most likely to occur. George J. Stein, Cyber War, 2000 Cyberwar is the newest subset of information warfare, which needs no battlefield and is fought in cyberspace. Cyberspace includes information itself, the communication nets that move it, and the computers that make it useful. Cyberspace can be influenced and at times dominated by anyone possessing inexpensive computers linked into existing global communication netsÃ Ã . The present information era offers modern tools to conduct seamless operations with utmost speedÃ Ã . It is essentially trying to deny the enemy the advantage of force, time and space that come with the use of modern information technologies. Cyber Warfare may be defined as Any act intended to compel an opponent to fulfill our national will, executed against the software controlling processes within an opponents system. It includes the following modes of cyber attack: cyber infiltration, cyber manipulation, cyber assault, and cyber raidÃ Ã . In present day battle field, forces exchange digital data for real time use using networks. Developments in the field of tele-communications, computer networking, image processing, miniaturization of electronics etc. has given a new impetus to the exploitation of the Information for Warfare. For all future conflicts, Cyber warfare would form one of the spheres of military operations in addition to the other four spheres i.e. land, air, sea and space. Military attack in the form of a cyber network attack is irregular in nature. It is extremely cheap, is very fast, can be carried out anonymously, and can disrupt or deny critical services precisely at the moment of maximum peril. Advances in technology over the past several decades have enabled cyber warfare to become a viable strategic tool. Details on cyber warfare are sensitive and all nations hold those closely. According to Jeffrey Carr, author of Inside Cyber Warfare, any country can wage cyberwar on any other country, irrespective of resources, because most military forces are network-centric and connected to the Internet, which is not secure. For the same reason, non-governmental groups and individuals could also launch cyberwarfare attacks. Cyber warfare in the civil domain is Internet-based conflict involving politically motivated attacks on information and information systems. Such attacks can disable official websites and networks, disrupt or disable essential services, steal or alter classified data, and cripple financial systems, among many other possibilities. The majority of computers, their operating systems and software purchased by the military services are commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, often manufactured abroad due to cheaper cost. Thus, foreign countries could place hidden components inside the computers, making the computers vulnerable for attack and/or spying. Examples of Cyber warfare. In 1998, the United States hacked into Serbias air defense system to compromise air traffic control and facilitate the bombing of Serbian targets. In 2007, in Estonia, a botnet of over a million computers brought down government, business and media websites across the country. The attack was suspected to have originated in Russia, motivated by political tension between the two countries. Also in 2007, an unknown foreign party hacked into high tech and military agencies in the United States and downloaded terabytes of information. In 2009, a cyber spy network called GhostNet accessed confidential information belonging to both governmental and private organizations in over 100 countries around the world. GhostNet was reported to originate in China, although that country denied responsibility. The most effective protection against cyberwarfare attacks is securing information and networks. Security updates should be applied to all systems including those that are not considered critical because any vulnerable system can be co-opted and used to carry out attacks. Measures to mitigate the potential damage of an attack include comprehensive disaster recovery planning that includes provisions for extended outages. It is tempting for policymakers to view cyberwarfare as an abstract future threat. After all, the national security establishment understands traditional military threats much better than it does virtual enemies. The problem is that an electronic attack can be large, widespread, and sudden far beyond the capabilities of conventional predictive models to anticipate. Cyber warfare is here to stay on the long run and it will be growing in the set of solutions our military has for the future. Weve have already seen this demonstrated in some of the wars in the Middle East. As weve heard in the press, the attacks by the United States have been to disable communications, to cause confusion in the command and control structure of the adversary before a follow- on assault. 1991 Gulf War: An Early Cyber Conflict. The first major U.S. conflict involving computer warfare was the 1991 war against Iraq. The Pentagon does not offer specific details as to what was done, but reports have asserted that Baghdads air defense radar and other systems were targeted by U.S. cyber warriors. A Case for Cyber Breach Every day, millions of automated network scans originating from foreign sources search Indian computers for unprotected communications ports, the built-in channels found in even the most inexpensive personal computers. Breaches of cyber security and data theft have plagued the US as well: in 2006, between 10 and 20 terabytes of data equivalent to the contents of approximately 100 laptop hard drives were illegally downloaded from the Pentagons non-classified network, and the State Department suffered similarly large losses the same year. The emergence of so-called peer-to-peer (p2p) networks poses yet another threat. These networks are temporary on demand connections that are terminated once the data service has been provided or the requested content delivered, much like a telephone call. From a security perspective, P2P networks offer an easy way to disguise illegitimate payloads (the content carried in digital packets); through the use of sophisticated protocols, they can divert network traffic to arbitrary ports, Data containing everything from music to financial transactions or weapons designs can be diverted to lanes that are created for a few milliseconds and then disappear without a trace, posing a crippling challenge to any countrys ability to monitor Internet traffic. Estimates vary, but P2P may consume as much as 60 percent of the Internets bandwidth; no one knows how much of this traffic is legitimate, how much violates copyright laws, and how much is a threat to national security. The commercially available networking systems that carry nearly all international data traffic are of high quality: they are structurally reliable, available globally and are also highly automated. However, the networking standards that enable communication using this networking infrastructure were designed in stages over the last four decades to ensure compatibility, not security, and the network designers have been playing catch-up for years. The price of perpetrating a cyber-attack is just a fraction of the cost of the economic and physical damage such an attack can produce. Because they are inexpensive to plan and execute, and because there is no immediate physical danger to the perpetrators, cyber-attacks are inherently attractive to adversaries large and small. Indeed, for the most isolated (and therefore resource-deprived) actors, remote, network borne disruptions of critical national infrastructure terrestrial and airborne traffic, energy generation and distribution, water and wastewater-treatment facilities, all manner of electronic communication, and, of course, the highly automated Indian financial system may be the primary means of aggression of a potential adversary. The cost of a cyber weapon is very low, a few thousands of dollars compared to the millions of dollars spent developing a new bomb or a sophisticated automated missile system. The skills and resources are not controlled and are available. As for intent, there is no shortage of individuals or groups who wish to harm India and the likelihood of detecting this plan and foiling it is questionable. Cyber-attacks occur on a frequent basis and in a near-instantaneous manner; as the world becomes more connected, more machines and more people will be affected by an attack. In the months and years to come, cyber-attack techniques will evolve even further, exposing various and possibly critical vulnerabilities that have not yet been identified by computer security experts. Moreover, such attacks could also be coordinated to coincide with physical assaults, in order to maximize the impact of both.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Importance of Internal Communication Communication is often defined as an exchange of information. Exchange involves at least one sender and one receiver so true communication thus infers a two way process; a dialogue, not a monologue. Information can involve text, voice, pictures and in fact any data which the human body can pick up through its five senses including emotion. Internal communications can be defined as the direct two way communications between employers and their staff. Effective internal communication which can be said to be downward, upward and horizontalÃ¢â¬ , is a vital means of addressing organisational concerns. Effective internal communication has been shown to help improve employee engagement through; increased job satisfaction, safety and decreased absenteeism, grievances and staff turnover. Such improvements are linked to improved productivity and overall profitability. Effective internal communications is all about enabling us to do our jobs to the best of our ability and ensuring that all of us are working together towards the same organisational goals. This can mean anything from encouraging you to talk to and exchange ideas with people from other departments to explaining the direction that we are heading in as set out by the Universitys decision-making bodies. We use a series of communications channels and tools to keep you informed and give us the chance to listen to your opinions. (prof. A.P Krishnan) Why is internal communication so important? Because clear, concise, and consistent communications educate employees, enabling them to appreciate the value of their organisations vision, programs or projects and is a significant element in engaging the employees keeping them focused, productive and committed. The contribution that clear and effective channels of communication can make to an organisation is substantial, not least in enlisting employees support for business objectives, aligning everyones activities and providing some motivation to raise performance levels. Where appropriate mechanisms are in place, employees are also more likely to engage with the organisational values and objectives offering feedback and coming forward with ideas. Internal communication is more than the art and technique of effectively imparting thoughts, information, and ideas to large numbers of people. It has become the single, most important element that enables an organisation to share their vision and galvanise their work force to action that moves the organisation forward.( Lyn Smith,) Impact of Communication in organisational change Poor communication during a time of organizational change can turn a difficult situation into a crisis. In spite of this age of high technology, few organizations have channels of communication that are adequate to the demands of change. People say, But you never told me! and you begin to realise how ineffective thousands of emails, memos, websites can be Maybe a team meeting or a two-minute face-to-face conversation would have been better This sort of training will let you learn when one style is better than another Develop a written communication plan to ensure that all of the following occur within your change management process. Communicate consistently, frequently, and through multiple channels, including speaking, writing, video, training, focus groups, bulletin boards, Intranets, and more about the change. Communicate all that is known about the changes, as quickly as the information is available. (Make clear that your bias is toward instant communication, so some of the details may change at a later date. Tell people that your other choice is to hold all communication until you are positive about the decisions. This is disastrous in effective change management. Provide significant amounts of time for people to ask questions, request clarification, and provide input. If you have been part of a scenario in which a leader presented changes, on overhead transparencies, to a large group, and then fled, you know what bad news this is for change integration.( Pamela Mounter) Clearly communicate the vision, the mission, and the objectives of the change management effort. Help people to understand how these changes will affect them personally. (If you dont help with this process, people will make up their own stories, usually more negative than the truth.) Recognize that true communication is a Ã¢â¬Å"conversation.Ã¢â¬ It is two-way and real discussion must result. It cannot be just a presentation. The change leaders or sponsors need to spend time conversing one-on-one or in small groups with the people who are expected to make the changes. Communicate the reasons for the changes in such a way that people understand the context, the purpose, and the need. Practitioners have called this: Ã¢â¬Å"building a memorable, conceptual framework,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"creating a theoretical framework to underpin the change.Ã¢â¬ Provide answers to questions only if you know the answer. Leaders destroy their credibility when they provide incorrect information or appear to stumble or back-peddle, when providing an answer. It is much better to say you dont know, and that you will try to find out. Tony Greener Leaders need to listen. Avoid defensiveness, excuse-making, and answers that are given too quickly. Act with thoughtfulness. Overcoming barriers in communication When you send a message, you intend to communicate meaning, but the message itself doesnt contain meaning. The meaning exists in your mind and in the mind of your receiver. To understand one another, you and your receiver must share similar meanings for words, gestures, tone of voice, and other symbols. 1. Differences in perception The world constantly bombards us with information: sights, sounds, scents, and so on. Our minds organize this stream of sensation into a mental map that represents our perception or reality. In no case is the perception of a certain person the same as the world itself, and no two maps are identical. As you view the world, your mind absorbs your experiences in a unique and personal way. Because your perceptions are unique, the ideas you want to express differ from other peoples Even when two people have experienced the same event, their mental images of that event will not be identical. As senders, we choose the details that seem important and focus our attention on the most relevant and general, a process known as selective perception. As receivers, we try to fit new details into our existing pattern. If a detail doesnt quite fit, we are inclined to distort the information rather than rearrange the pattern. (Peter J. Holzer) 2. Incorrect filtering Filtering is screening out before a message is passed on to someone else. In business, the filters between you and your receiver are many; secretaries, assistants, receptionists, answering machines, etc. Those same gatekeepers may also translate your receivers ideas and responses before passing them on to you. To overcome filtering barriers, try to establish more than one communication channel, eliminate as many intermediaries as possible, and decrease distortion by condensing message information to the bare essentials. 3. Language problems When you choose the words for your message, you signal that you are a member of a particular culture or subculture and that you know the code. The nature of your code imposes its own barriers on your message. Barriers also exist because words can be interpreted in more than one way. Language is an arbitrary code that depends on shared definitions, but theres a limit to how completely any of us share the same meaning for a given word. To overcome language barriers, use the most specific and accurate words possible. Always try to use words your audience will understand. Increase the accuracy of your messages by using language that describes rather than evaluates and by presenting observable facts, events, and circumstances. 4. Poor listening Perhaps the most common barrier to reception is simply a lack of attention on the receivers part. We all let our minds wander now and then, regardless of how hard we try to concentrate. People are essentially likely to drift off when they are forced to listen to information that is difficult to understand or that has little direct bearing on their own lives. Too few of us simply do not listen well! To overcome barriers, paraphrase what you have understood, try to view the situation through the eyes of other speakers and resist jumping to conclusions. Clarify meaning by asking non-threatening questions, and listen without interrupting. 5. Differing emotional states Every message contains both a content meaning, which deals with the subject of the message, and a relationship meaning, which suggests the nature of the interaction between sender and receiver. Communication can break down when the receiver reacts negatively to either of these meanings. You may have to deal with people when they are upset or when you are. An upset person tends to ignore or distort what the other person is saying and is often unable to present feelings and ideas effectively. This is not to say that you should avoid all communication when you are emotionally involved, but you should be alert to the greater potential for misunderstanding that accompanies aroused emotions. To overcome emotional barriers, be aware of the feelings that arise in your self and in others as you communicate, and attempt to control them. Most important, be alert to the greater potential for misunderstanding that accompanies emotional messages. 6. Differing backgrounds Differences in background can be one of the hardest communication barriers to overcome. Age, education, gender, social status, economic position, cultural background, temperament, health, beauty, popularity, religion, political belief, even a passing mood can all separate one person from another and make understanding difficult. To overcome the barriers associated with differing backgrounds, avoid projecting your own background or culture onto others. Clarify your own and understand the background of others, spheres of knowledge, personalities and perceptions and dont assume that certain behaviors mean the same thing to everyone. (Dana Bonbrisco Dodzik) Recommendations for managers for improving communication Research indicates that managers spend somewhere between 50% 80% of their total time communicating in one way or the other. This isnt surprising, since communication is so critical to everything that goes on in an organization. Without effective communication there can be little or no performance management, innovation, understanding of clients, coordination of effort, AND, without effective communication it is difficult to manage the expectations of those who are in a position to make decisions about your fate. (Eileen Scholes) It can also be said that many managers do not communicate well, and do not set an organizational climate where communication within the organization is managed effectively. This isnt surprising, since a manager who communicates ineffectively and does not encourage effective organizational communication is unlikely to hear about it. Poor communication is self-sustaining, because it eliminates an important feedback loop. Staff are loathe to communicate their concerns about communication because they do not perceive the manager as receptive. Both staff and management play out a little dance. In short, you may be fostering poor communication, and never know it. You may see the symptoms, but unless you are looking carefully, you may not identify your own involvement in the problem. What can you do about it? Effective organizational communication, regardless of form, requires three things. First, all players must have the appropriate skills and understanding to communicate well. Communication is not a simple process, and many people simply do not have the required depth of understanding of communication issues. (Marisa Desoiza) Second, effective organizational communication requires a climate or culture that supports effective communication. More specifically, this climate involves trust, openness, reinforcement of good communication practices, and shared responsibility for making communication effective. Third, effective communication requires attention. It doesnt just happen, but develops as a result of an intentional effort on the part of management and staff. Too often, communication, whether it is good or bad, is taken for granted. We can define your role in improving communication with respect to each of these. First, if you want to improve communication, you will need to ensure that you and staff have the skills and knowledge necessary to communicate effectively. This may mean formal training is in order, or it may mean that you coach staff and provide feedback so that they can improve. Second, you play a critical role in fostering and nurturing a climate that is characterized by open communication. Without this climate, all the skills in the world will be wasted. Finally, you must bring communication to the forefront of organization attention. If you make the effort to improve communication, your staff will recognize that it is important. If you ignore it, so will staff. Conclusion It is very clear that internal communication is an integral part of management of an organisation. The effectiveness of management depends upon the efficient internal communication system. The communication operates as the nerve system of group activity. References Prof. KP Krishnan-business communication Lyn Smith, Pamela Mounter-Business Economics- Tony Greener- Internal communication: a practical guide to effective employee communication Eileen Scholes-handbook of internal communication Bonnie Ellison, National School Public Relations Association -Communication in education Marisa Desoiza Internal communication: its influence on the staff and the organization Dana Bonbrisco Dodzik -Communication in organizations Peter J. Holzer-Improving internal communications to creating a building a learning organization http://www.idea.gov.uk/idk/core/page.do?pageId=7816302 http://www.opcuk.com/downloads/defining_internal_communications.pdf www.sheffield.ac.uk//Internal_Communication_Audit_FindingsEXECSUMMARY.doc Bibiliography http://www.communicology.org/content/definition-communicology http://books.google.co.uk/books?q=internal+communicationlr=sa=Nstart=10 http://managementhelp.org/mrktng/org_cmm.htm http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IC48OAAACAAJdq=internal+communications+in+an+organisationlr=cd=20 Prof. KP Krishnan-business communication Lyn Smith,Pamela Mounter-Business Economics- Tony Greener- Internal communication: a practical guide to effective employee communication Eileen Scholes-handbook of internal communication Bonnie Ellison, National School Public Relations Association -Communication in education Marisa Desoiza Internal communication: its influence on the staff and the organization Dana Bonbrisco Dodzik -Communication in organizations Peter J. Holzer-Improving internal communications to creating a building a learning organization http://www.idea.gov.uk/idk/core/page.do?pageId=7816302 http://www.opcuk.com/downloads/defining_internal_communications.pdf www.sheffield.ac.uk//Internal_Communication_Audit_FindingsEXECSUMMARY.doc
Monday, August 19, 2019
Thunderwith Essay Everyone goes through a grieving stage in their lives. Lose of a loved one like a mother or just personal problems can cause a person to be upset and grieving. In the novel Thunderwith by Libby Hathorn, the main character Lara gives an example of the stages of grieving. And how she learnt to overcome her mother's death. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the beginning of the novel, Lara is faced with the death of her beloved mother. She is sent to live with her father that she has not seen since she was a child. Lara is also going to live with her father's new family that she has never met. Larry her father has a new wife. 'Lara has the impression that the Man will care for and look after her, saving her from his wife and kids.'; When Lara eventually meets her new stepmother, her half-brother and half-sisters, she immediately knows that she is not wanted and that they hate her. So Lara thinks that the Man will look after her and save her from his family. This is further denial of the pain and loneliness she feels. Thunderwith the novel expresses a young girl grieving over her mother's death. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Soon afterwards Lara meets a dog. She decides to call it Thunderwith because she thinks that it is a gift sent down by her mother. Lara is so happy that she can have one moment of happiness. 'She had just met Thunderwith and somehow by caring about him meant she didn't care about being by herself. She 'was not really alone at all-Thunderwi...
The Theme of Self Esteem in Othello For the theater-going people of the Elizabethan age, there were many hardships. Many of them experienced poor living conditions and treatment. All of them faced the dangers of a comparatively underdeveloped medical knowledge which often left the young and elderly to die of common diseases. The magic of Shakespeare is not only that historians can learn of otherwise undocumented details of the 1500's, but also that all readers can discover the many similarities between Shakespeare's day and now. These similarities reside heavily not only in speech, but also the human condition. When compared with the people we know today, Shakespeare's characters exhibit only skin-deep differences. Some identical language expressions may owe their modern existance to Shakespeare's presence in literary education, but identical emotional reactions surely cannot stem solely from the lecture hall. The English inhabitants of the 16th century, as seen through William Shakespeare's eyes, experienced the same love, hate, and jealousy that we do today. Just as our modern films and music often include implied moral lessons, so too does Shakespeare's The Tragedy of Othello the Moor of Venice. All its primary characters and themes of unstable love and exploitation culminate into one simple message about the key importance of loving oneself. Iago, the villian of the tale, is responsible for initiating most of the turbulence found in the plot. Essentially, Iago chooses two insecure individuals on which to work his exploitation: Roderigo and Othello. Othello, arguably the main character of the play, is Iago's primary pawn. Roderigo becomes a secondary card in Iago's deck, as well as his source of money. Blinded by his lo... ...ny sort of hardships such as financial difficulties or emotional manipulation just like that exercised against Othello and Desdemona. Even today, similar messages about self empowerment are widely seen in popular novels, films, and television programs. Contemporary examples include Harry Potter, "28 Days", "Sesame Street", and many others. One can almost imagine an unwealthy villager emerging from lengthy stay in a packed theatre making a firm resolve to finally regain the strength to sever ties to an untrustworthy and treacherous acquaintance. Works Cited Myers, David G. Psychology, 6th Edition. Holland, Michigan: Worth Publishers, 2001. Dolezal, Timothy William. Moor Impotency: Othello's Powerlessness in Sexual and Social Relationships. 14 Dec. 1998. University of Notre Dame. 23 June 2003 <http://www.nd.edu/~frswrite/mcpartlin/1999/Dolezal.shtml>. The Theme of Self Esteem in Othello Essay -- Essays Papers The Theme of Self Esteem in Othello For the theater-going people of the Elizabethan age, there were many hardships. Many of them experienced poor living conditions and treatment. All of them faced the dangers of a comparatively underdeveloped medical knowledge which often left the young and elderly to die of common diseases. The magic of Shakespeare is not only that historians can learn of otherwise undocumented details of the 1500's, but also that all readers can discover the many similarities between Shakespeare's day and now. These similarities reside heavily not only in speech, but also the human condition. When compared with the people we know today, Shakespeare's characters exhibit only skin-deep differences. Some identical language expressions may owe their modern existance to Shakespeare's presence in literary education, but identical emotional reactions surely cannot stem solely from the lecture hall. The English inhabitants of the 16th century, as seen through William Shakespeare's eyes, experienced the same love, hate, and jealousy that we do today. Just as our modern films and music often include implied moral lessons, so too does Shakespeare's The Tragedy of Othello the Moor of Venice. All its primary characters and themes of unstable love and exploitation culminate into one simple message about the key importance of loving oneself. Iago, the villian of the tale, is responsible for initiating most of the turbulence found in the plot. Essentially, Iago chooses two insecure individuals on which to work his exploitation: Roderigo and Othello. Othello, arguably the main character of the play, is Iago's primary pawn. Roderigo becomes a secondary card in Iago's deck, as well as his source of money. Blinded by his lo... ...ny sort of hardships such as financial difficulties or emotional manipulation just like that exercised against Othello and Desdemona. Even today, similar messages about self empowerment are widely seen in popular novels, films, and television programs. Contemporary examples include Harry Potter, "28 Days", "Sesame Street", and many others. One can almost imagine an unwealthy villager emerging from lengthy stay in a packed theatre making a firm resolve to finally regain the strength to sever ties to an untrustworthy and treacherous acquaintance. Works Cited Myers, David G. Psychology, 6th Edition. Holland, Michigan: Worth Publishers, 2001. Dolezal, Timothy William. Moor Impotency: Othello's Powerlessness in Sexual and Social Relationships. 14 Dec. 1998. University of Notre Dame. 23 June 2003 <http://www.nd.edu/~frswrite/mcpartlin/1999/Dolezal.shtml>.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
A Comparison of Moods in Beowulf and Samuel Becketts Waiting for Godot :: comparison compare contrast essays
Moods in Beowulf and Samuel Beckett's Waiting for GodotÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Reading a work of literature often makes a reader experience certain feelings.Ã These feeling differ with the content of the work, and are usually needed to perceive the author's ideas in the work.Ã For example, Samuel Beckett augments a reader's understanding of Waiting For Godot by conveying a mood, (one which the characters in the play experience), to the reader. Similarly, a dominant mood is thrust upon a reader in Beowulf.Ã These moods which are conveyed aid the author in conveying ideas to a reader. Ã Ã Ã Ã In Waiting for Godot, Beckett uses many pauses, silences, and ellipses (three dots (...) used to create a break in speech) to express a feeling of waiting and unsureness.Ã There is a twofold purpose behind this technique. For one, it shows that Vladimir and Estragon, the two main characters who are waiting for Godot,Ã are unsure of why they are waiting for him.Ã This also foreshadows that they will be waiting a very long time. Ã Ã Ã Ã In some cases in literature, an idea can only be conveyed properly if those on the receiving end of the ideaÃ are able to experience the feelings that a character is experiencing in the work.Ã For example, in order for a reader to feel how and understand why Vladimir and Estragon feel as though they do while they wait, it is essential for that reader to either understand or experience the same feelings that Vladimir and Estragon are experiencing.Ã Vladimir and Estragon are waiting;Ã waiting for Godot, to be exact; and Beckett wants the reader to feel as if he or she were waiting also.Ã Along with the feeling of waiting that a reader may experience, he or she might also understand how Vladimir and Estragon feel at times: Unsure, not very anxious to move on, and constantly having to wait.Ã A feeling of timelessness is even evoked, allowing almost anyone from nearly any time to understand Vladimir and Estragon's predicament. Ã Ã Ã Ã Many times people may feel overwhelmed by a higher force unalterable to them.Ã This force may control something such as their fate.Ã In the Anglo-Saxon culture, a popular belief was that of fate.Ã The writers of Beowulf may have known that not all people believe in the power of fate. Therefore, to properly convey such an idea as the inevitability of fate in the epic, the writers included events which, when read, are also "experienced" by the reader.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Goals and objectives are the starting point for any planning effort because they provide a clear direction. With respect to the transportation system, goals and objective act as a barometer of the quality of life expected by a community and are also used to measure the success or failure of implementing a proposed plan. This is a summary of the goals and objectives of the Regional 2030 Transportation Plan derived from a series of public forums in the early 1990s and reviewed by the Capital Area Regional Transportation System Study (CARTS) Long Range Plan Task Force. For the first time, a number of interest groups, communities and non-traditional partners had been involved in the planning process in order to ensure that the goals and objectives were consistent with the adopted Ã¢â¬Å"Wise GrowthÃ¢â¬ land use alternative and included a cross section of needs and perspectives. The adopted goals and objectives of the Regional Transportation 2030 Plan are as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Accessibility Ã¢â¬â to provide accessibility to all persons and goods. Objectives include providing reasonable access through planning capacity and routing, giving priority to multi-modal projects, maximize accessibility to all persons regardless of their economic, physical and social status and assure compliance with the Disabilities Act. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mobility Options Ã¢â¬â to provide multi-modal transportation choices for all people and goods. Objectives include inter and intra regional routing and modal options, giving priority to projects that enhance all modes and provide balance, to stage programs and projects in priority corridors, minimize disruptions and provide alternative routes and modes, reduce congestion, promote Transportation Demand Management strategies, encourage events, businesses and facilities managers to advertise alternative travel modes and services, undertake pre-emptive measures, use the guidebook Ã¢â¬Å"Evaluating Traffic Impact Studies in local and intergovernmental reviews and to consider and expand public transit in rural areas. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Safety Ã¢â¬â to design, manage and maintain transportation systems consistent with accepted multi-modal safety standards, goals and the regional plan. Objectives include reduction of number, severity and resultant casualties of traffic crashes, encourage traffic control measures and Intelligent Transportation Systems applications, minimize conflicts between transportation modes and implement programs to improve traffic calming measures, sidewalks, pedestrian crossings, railroad crossings, paved shoulders, bicycle facilities, safety education, enforcement programs, multi-use paths, paths to accommodate horse drawn carriages and access management, to encourage installation and improvement of sidewalks where missing or substandard and to provide adequate safety lighting in pedestrian areas or transit stops. Ã¢â¬ ¢ System Efficiency Ã¢â¬â to maximize efficiencies in utilization and performance of the multi-modal transportation systems. Objectives include using the transportation system management techniques to maximize operating efficiency including ridesharing, public bus transit, walking, biking, traffic sign and signal improvements, intersection improvements and way-finding; to develop policies and incentives to increase vehicle occupancies, coordinate movement of both people and goods, guide transportation expenditures in line with the seven mandatory planning factors listed in federal law (SAFETEA-LU), social, economic development and land use goals, travel time, operating cost, accident risk and performance standards and provide alternative forms of travel connecting services. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Environmental Impacts Ã¢â¬â to develop a transportation system compatible with federal, state and local environmental standards. Objectives include reducing air pollutant emissions, reducing energy consumption, promoting use of alternative fuels and technologies, minimize transportation-generated noise, minimize disruptions to open space and natural areas, encourage alternate modes of transportation and encourage environmentally friendly design standards and practices. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Land Use Ã¢â¬â to develop a system which maximizes positive impact and minimizes conflict. Objectives include encouraging local governments to adopt and implement land use plans, strengthen the regional metropolitan center, develop transformation services consistent with regional growth plan, preservation of land and open space, promotion of regional greenways, existing public utilities, local land use plans, regional non-motorized transportation plan, growth centers; prioritize development of sidewalks, provide non-motorized links within the community, encourage non-motorized connectivity, encourage transit oriented development and consider transit access and appropriate standards. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Financial Considerations Ã¢â¬â to seek financial resources to preserve, maintain and improve the transportation system. Objectives include preserving and enhancing the existing system, seeking maximum state and federal funds, seeking local governmental funding, seeking alternative sources of funding, encouraging economic development, maintain and modernize existing system, coordinate and negotiate concurrent public and private infrastructure investments, use surface transportation systems, demonstrate wise and efficient operations and consider life cycle costs. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Economic Development Ã¢â¬â to develop a system that fosters economic development at reduced cost and better opportunities. Objectives include improved services, intermodal connectivity, enhanced travel and freight services, regional cooperation, non-motorized enhancements, flexible and timely response and transit access. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Public Involvement Ã¢â¬â to involve the public in planning and development. Objectives include public participation throughout the plan, continued feedback, involvement of interest groups and an active process of public information and education. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Transit Ã¢â¬â to develop, maintain and expand public bus transit system. Objectives include decreasing auto dependency and demands on the roadway system, increasing public transitÃ¢â¬â¢s hare, reduce congestion, reduce need for highway improvements, serve the transit dependent, develop cost-effective system, increase intermodal transportation linkages, direct resources and efforts to increase ridership, accommodate passenger rail service, make transit an attractive alternative, connect employment centers and public services, provide safety comfort and aesthetic improvements. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Parking/Parking Management Ã¢â¬â to provide for parking needs and minimize urban congestion. Objectives include finding alternatives to parking, evaluate removal or restriction on street parking, support land use that is conducive to transit, reduce overall parking demand, increase parking facilities for bicycles, promote construction of parking facilities, improve pedestrian access and develop parking facilities in line with standards. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Community Impact Ã¢â¬â to design systems compatible with community character and environmental standards. Objectives include minimizing disruptions through transportation projects, enhancing community goals, enhance community character, provide non-motorized enhancements, consider community goals, prioritize aesthetic enhancement projects. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Intermodal Ã¢â¬â to increase opportunities for intermodal and freight connections. Objectives include providing services that provide multimodal connections, incorporate rail, truck and air transport, improve access to intermodal facilities, complete alternative analysis, consider transit oriented park and ride facilities and encourage use of rail freight where available. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Non-motorized Ã¢â¬â to encourage pedestrian and bicycle modes. Objectives include improved bicycle facilities, utilizing the natural character of the landscape, bike parking and storage facilities, bike parking, consider privacy of adjoining properties, complete regional River Trail system, encourage multi-use pathways, improve bicycle parking standards, provide improved bicycle transportation system, improve safety, provide close to home and regional activities and encourage use of non-motorized transportation system, safe pedestrian access, non-motorized connectivity, regional greenway system and complete route location and design studies, installation of sidewalks, non-motorized facilities, acquisition of raid corridors and projects within rail and utility corridors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management Systems Ã¢â¬â to evaluate alternate transportation investments and strategies. Objectives include using the Congestion Management System, the Safety Management System, the Intermodal Management System, Pavement Management System, Bridge Management System and Public Transportation Management System. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Airport Issues Ã¢â¬â to promote regionÃ¢â¬â¢s air facilities. Objectives include supporting local policies, maintain regionÃ¢â¬â¢s air facilities, evaluate alternative routing access to airport, pursue balancing funding for airport, encourage gateway and way-finding improvements, consider emissions and noise pollution, encourage airport partnerships with local governments and incorporate intermodal connections. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Intelligent Transportation System Ã¢â¬â to better manage existing resources and enhance efficiency. Objectives include improved safety of regional transportation system, improved management during special events or system disruptions, minimize community and land use impact, manage parking demand and supply, enhance level of service and reduce environmental impact. The new transportation planning process is intended to clearly relate programs and projects to state and local transportation goals and objectives, make the process more strategic, focused and flexible and improve performance measures. For an effective 20-25 year regional plan it is important to apply a temporal component to achieve regional goals and objectives and to regularly measure progress generally after every four year period. Types and characteristics of projects may also change over time to better fit with goals and objectives. The Long Range Plan Task Force has also identified short term and long term strategies, projects and performances measures for this plan. There are several reasons why I have selected the flute over the others. First of all, almost all the people in my life either play or have played the flute at one point of their lives; my mother and all her brothers play the flute; my brothers and sisters have the same passion for it as well; my cousins play for their respective schools too; and most importantly, the love of my life is busy with the development of the skills and talents that would make her career flourish. Second, I have played other instruments in the past. I have developed my skills in playing the piano and practiced that for over seven years. I have also played the violin for quite sometime. However, for some reasons that no words can articulate, I keep on going back to my real love Ã¢â¬â the flute. Finally, it is the only sound that de-stresses me when I extremely feel tired, that makes me happy when I am so frustrated, and that makes me feel complete. Qualities and Features of the Flute that Interests Me The sound that comes from the fluteÃ¢â¬â¢s hole is always dominant because of its clearness. It is really Ã¢â¬Å"musicÃ¢â¬ to my ears because it is so graceful, elegant, and exceedingly sweet. That is the major reason why it makes me feel better all the time. Also I have observed that it is not very effective in a rather large venue but is extremely soothing if played in smaller setting. Role of the Flute in the Orchestra The flute plays a large role in the orchestra because there are times when it has to be in the front position, sometimes, it is up to it to carry the whole performance altogether. Its dominance is the main reason for this, because of its power, it stands out, and so it has to sound outstanding to be able to carry the whole performance altogether. References Debost, M. (2001). The Simple Flute. NY: Oxford University Press. Leonard, H. (2000). Essential Elements 2000 Flute Book. n. p. p. : n. p.
Friday, August 16, 2019
In natureÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest fury in six decades in the valley, more than 170 people have already lost their lives in the recent flood that struck the indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Witnessing human terror since ages, the valley is under the threat of floods due to a week long incessant rain which is affecting the rescue operations as well. The Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi on Sunday declared the situation a Ã¢â¬Å"national-level disasterÃ¢â¬ , and announced a special assistance of Rs 1,000 crores for the flood-hit state, from PMÃ¢â¬â¢s relief fund. River Jhelum flowing 14 feet above the danger mark. Homes, military bases and hospitals inundated in the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s main city Srinagar as the Jhelum river overflowed its banks. Landslides triggered by heavy rainfall have damaged roads, dozens of bridges, buildings and crops. Land route has been stopped on the Jammu-Pathankot highway. The state government has closed all schools till September 7. Some 2,500 villages have been partially or completely submerged across the area, while thousands of people are stranded on rooftops waiting to be rescued. A temple being washed away by the force of the flood. While the National Disaster Response Force teams have evacuated over 2700 victims to safer places, the Indian Air Force has also mounted massive relief efforts. Flood waters rose sharply overnight in Srinagar, a city of 900,000, catching many people living in low-lying areas unaware. This picture speaks volume about the prevailing flood conditions in the valley. The Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi taking an aerial survey of the flood affected region in the valley. Five days of incessant rains in Jammu and Kashmir have left at least 170 people dead in the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s worst flooding in more than six decades. Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday declared the situation a Ã¢â¬Å"national-level disasterÃ¢â¬ and announced a special assistance of Rs 1,000 crores for the flood-hit state besides Rs 2 lakhs compensation from the Prime MinisterÃ¢â¬â¢s Relief Fund for the kin of the dead and Rs 50,000 for those seriously injured. Flood alert has been sounded in Srinagar , and all emergency services have been pressed into service to meet the eventuality of a flood. Two youths rescuing livestock from a flood hit area in Srinagar.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
The case describes how seven eleven has successfully established an innovative business model. Toshifumi Suzuki, CEO of Seven eleven Japan (SEJ), described Seven Eleven Stores as: Ã¢â¬Å"Stores where you can find a solution for any of your daily lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s problems. We always try to plan and design a store in such a way that our store neighbours, in particular, can get whatever they need at any time they wantÃ¢â¬ SEJ, headquartered in Japan, leads the world wide seven Eleven chain, which had 24,912 stores in 18 countries in March 2003.In 2003 ranking of retailers by market value, SEJ was number one in Japan. Since its establishment in 1974, SEJ has never experienced a fall in income or profits. With 9,757 stores as of May, 2003, SEJ is the largest CVS chain in Japan. Its stores feature the same basic designs: large, highly visible sign in green, red and orange, a large store window, much brighter than average lightning and a spotlessly clean store. SEJ identifies their customer orientation, offering not only a rich assortment of products but total comfort to customers, as the source of SEJÃ¢â¬â¢s rise to the top of the Japanese retail industry. Industry Background The Japanese Distribution System Prior to 1974: Traditional Japanese retailing consists of a conservative, multi-tiered system that combines large numbers of small wholesalers and retailers into complex exclusive networks. These networks are not based solely on economic efficiency but also on tight human relationships. The wholesale to retail level ratios (W/R) is measure of layers within distribution system. W/R ratio 1992 1998 US 0.98 Ã¢â¬â Japan Ã¢â¬â 2.3 Although the development of information technology in the industry has gradually improved the efficiency of the distribution system, small-to-medium-sized retailers owe their existence mainly to the multi-tiered and vertically integrated structure. Retail Business Environment The Japanese retail sector is still dominated by small retailers. Firms with one to four employees make up about 70% of the total number of stores. In these small shops, CVS still accounts for only 3.2% of all stores and only 5% of total sales Because of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s small land area, most Japanese retail stores have too little space to maintain a wide assortment of products in either the store or inventory. These small, local Ã¢â¬Å"mom-and-popÃ¢â¬ stores typically lack both managerial know-how and planning skills. In addition, given their limited size, they are often unable to bear large inventory risks and thus have to rely on manufacturers and wholesalers to bear part of that burden. Legal perspective Japanese government enforced in 1974 the Large-scale Retail Store (LRS) Law which regulated the business hours of larger outlets. Initially applied to stores over 1,500 m2, it was later extended in 1979 to stores with an area of over 500 m2. The law mandated that stores close by 7 P.M. each day and remained closed at least 30 shop days per year. Fueled by heavy pressure from abroad, the deregulation trend caused the LRS law to be changed in 1990 and practically abolished in 2001. While operating its large stores under the LRS law, Ito- Yokado, a parent company of SEJ, launched a new retail business based on small regional stores, which can effectively co-exist with large stores. As a result, CVS chains prove that small stores can compete against larger retailers by improving the efficiency and productivity of their franchise and continual striving to meet customer needs. Because of the density of the store network, CVS chains are not only places to sell products, but are also becoming an important part of the social infrastructure. Seven-Eleven Japan Ito-Yokado, a parent company of SEJ, was founded by Masatoshi Ito in 1964 as a 66-square-foot family clothing store in Tokyo. After starting a new chain of super stores offering a range of food and clothing products, he expanded his business into other distribution areas such as restaurants, department, discount and convenience stores. By 2002, the Ito- Yokado group was one of the largest retail groups in Japan with Ã ¥5,574 billion ($41.6 billion) in sales and 114,600 employees. Toshifumi Suzuki negotiated directly with Southland, then owner of Seven-Eleven, to bring the convenience store concept to Japan. Japanese consumers were generally more sensitive to product and service quality, more fickle and less price-sensitive. Therefore products had to be fresh, and the turnover rate very high. To meet such customer requirements within the constraint of limited shelf and storage capacity, it was necessary to forecast customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demand by the time of purchase, the store location and the weather. Providing the customer with well-targeted, differentiated products 24-hours a day, 7-days-a week was critical. As of 2003, SEJ is the largest convenience store chain with Ã ¥2,213 billion ($17.5 billion) revenue and 5,061 employees. Its market value of $21,721 million and consolidated net income of Ã ¥82,825 million ($690 million) are the highest in the whole of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s retail industry. Strategy SEJ practice of continuous item control and well-organized delivery system, and the heavy use of information technology (IT). The basic mission of an SEJ store is to provide solutions for all the problems of everyday life. Each store offers a variety of high-quality products and services that are required daily or on an emergency basis to make life easier and more Ã¢â¬Å"convenientÃ¢â¬ . The two main reasons for the failure of existing retailers. They ignored: 1)Ã the importance of convenience to the customer and 2) the quality of the products and the service. SEJ developed some key principles to define a quality convenience store. 1. Reduction of lost opportunity: A missed opportunity to sell an item because it is out of stock is one of the most serious problems in retail business in terms of disappointing customers as well as missing the actual profit. 2. Effective Item Control and Well-Planned Product Supply Management: The American practice of keeping large inventories of a wide variety of products could not be applied in convenience stores in Japan where shelf and storage space are limited and maintaining a large inventory is prohibitive. SEJ pursued a strategy of supplying products in high demand with a rapid turnover rate and eliminating dead or slow-moving products through item-by-item analysis. The well-organized analysis and frequent replacement contributes to SEJÃ¢â¬â¢s high product supply efficiency. 3. Commitment to Customer Satisfaction with Original Product Development and Friendly Service:SEJ not only sells manufacturersÃ¢â¬â¢ products but also researches customersÃ¢â¬â¢ potential needs. SEJ uses this research to provide original products at reasonable prices (such as a lunch boxes and prepared foods) Merchandising The store space available for a Seven-Eleven franchisee is, on average, only 110 m2. The items kept in stock and on the shelf are precisely selected for the targeted customers and product quality is kept high. Product turnover is high, and goods are always new and food fresh. SEJ discovered that customer loyalty was driven more by specific items than by item categories. To meet the demand and achieve such tight item-by item control, SEJ implemented the POS (Point of Sale) system in 1982, whereby storeowners could identify customer trends and enhance product differentiation. SEJ introduced its POS systems to collect sales data used to improve merchandising and the item-by-item control process. For instance, the cash register would not openÃ until the operator pushed the account button indicating the gender and estimated age of the customer. This information from the POS system was used for consumer trend analysis. Store Network Expansion SEJ considers its market dominating strategy of high-density, clustered store openings to be the key to efficiency and stability. The advantages of the market dominance strategy are: Improved brand awareness Increased customer visits to the stores Boosted distribution efficiency Enhanced productivity of franchisee-support services Improved advertising effectiveness Franchise Strategy Approximately 60% of SEJ stores were modified from old family owned stores (e.g., liquor or rice stores). The relationship between franchiser and franchisee is one of reciprocal obligations. The franchisee is an independent business which gives SEJ royalties and a long-term commitment, and concentrates on the tasks of selling and effectively managing inventory. The royalty that the franchisee pays to the franchiser is 43% of its gross profit. In exchange for their long-term commitment and royalties, SEJ provides franchisees with service from field representatives called Operation Field Counselors (OFC). Each of about 1,300 OFCs supervises between seven or eight stores, providing (i) advice on store operation and ordering and (ii) information on the portfolio of available items and on sales methods. This person-to-person contact with store managers is a key element of the SEJ franchise system. Each OFC visits each store at least twice a week and spends at least two hours providing adv ice and information. Such a close relationship not only motivates franchisees but also supports company-wide brand image and promotional strategies. Outsourcing Policy SEJ is known for its outsourcing policy and ability to manage supplier relationships. The rationalized distribution system crafted by SEJ created conflict within the traditional wholesale system. Over time, however, SEJÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ system has proved highly reliable and efficient, covering everything from raw procurement to product deliveries. The collaboration between SEJ and the business partners includes shared information systems and know-how about operations management as well as quality control in the food manufacturersÃ¢â¬â¢ factories and delivery centres. By 2002, the company had built a network of 223 distribution centres and 195 factories dedicated to fast food production, all of them created and operated by wholesalers, suppliers and forward agents. Information Systems Strategy Daily, Seven-Eleven stores serve a total of 9.5 million customers, process five million order transactions and send 35 million sales transactions to the information systems centre where sales data is collected, integrated and analysed. The decisions have to be based on well-analysed hypothesis, order and validation. Information technology (IT) for SEJ is merely a method to support the cycle. SEJ prefers to outsource most of its information systems management to external service providers due to the speed at which the information technology market moves. This strategy allows the information systems department of SEJ to focus on developing a systems vision that fits with the business strategy, while the rest of the information systems management is outsourced. The department has evolved into a more strategic organization that links needs from stores with top management and proposes innovative system plans. SEJ regularly explores opportunities to gain first mover advantage by trying out state-of-the-art technologies: the first POS system in Japan in 1982, the first major use of Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) in 1991, etc. Operation Infrastructure Total Information Systems SEJ has continued to develop total information systems. In June 1999, the fifth generation total information system, in which SEJ invested Ã ¥60 billion ($500 million), was released in collaboration with 14 companies including NRI, NEC, Toshiba TEC, etc. High efficiency, maintainability and reliability of the total network system: The system connects 70,000 computers in stores, at headquarters and at supplier sites through satellite telecommunications, exclusive lines, ISDN and mobile networks via the most appropriate telecommunication technology. The combination of ISDN and satellite telecommunications realizes 45x faster speeds at 35x better cost performance. Terminals are constantly monitored and software and configuration can be updated remotely. The most critical systems such as online ordering and accounting systems are backed up at physically separated locations in Yokohama and Osaka. And in earthquake-prone Japan, satellite telecommunication provides an extra layer of safety. The system, now shared by 10,000 stores, is considered highly reliable due to the crisis management planning and high service levels. The store information system which encourages all store staff to participate in ordering: SEJ provides stores with multimedia information such as pictures, video, audio, text and numerical data, which is used by all employees in Seven-Eleven stores. The system platform shared with business partners: SEJ provides its business partnersÃ¢â¬âvendors, distributors and manufacturesÃ¢â¬âwith a common infrastructure consisting of 1,800 terminals at 1,100 locations. The applications on the platform vary depending on the partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s business: raw material ordering system, inventory management, production management, automated sorting system, for example. The broad system infrastructure facilitates collaboration among SEJ allies by improving the efficiency of delivery through the sharing of order, sales and inventory information. And finally, sophisticated analysis system which eliminates intuitive decision-making . Electronic Commerce Business SEJ categorizes its electronic commerce (EC) business into four major groups: 1) financial services, 2) Internet shopping site, 3) public and regionalÃ services, and 4) in-store intelligent copy machines. Financial Services (settlement, finance, and card service): Launched in 1987, Seven-Eleven hasdeveloped the payment acceptance service whichprovides customers with a convenient means to paytheir bills 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Affiliatedcompanies number about 1,500 and the types ofpayment are mainly utilities: electricity, telephone,water, rent, and mail orders. This business has beensuccessful with 144 million yearly transactions witha total value of Ã ¥1.15 trillion (about $12.8 billion)and a 20% annual growth rate. Internet Shopping Site: 7dream.com, a subsidiary of SEJ, provides the internet shopping site by utilizing SEJÃ¢â¬â¢s existing operating infrastructure in its EC activities. SEJ also ties into other internet sites and provides payment acceptance and pick-up service at the retail stores. Goods purchased via the Internet are picked up at stores 24-hours a day or delivered to customersÃ¢â¬â¢ homes, raising the value of Seven-Eleven stores and enhancing convenience for customers. Public, civil and regional services: SEJÃ¢â¬â¢s meals-on wheels service, named Seven Meal Service, offers prepared meals and cooking ingredients to regional customers. Order can be made via the Internet. SEJ plans to expand its public services at stores via its EC platform so that customers can obtain civil services. In-store intelligent copy machines: Multipurpose copy machines at Seven-Eleven stores are connected the Internet and enable customers to print event tickets and documents created by customers at home as well as to pay for pre-ordered airline tickets. With the capability to attract 1,000 customers per day per store, SEJ is pursuing synergy between the existing retail and EC business units to encourage potential Internet users to visit Seven-Eleven stores and become new customers. SEJ also provides its EC platform service for EC partners with functions such as authentication, database, settlement, and distribution. Temperature-Separated Combined Distribution System Since 1976, SEJ has been developing a streamlined distribution system to efficiently integrate product supplies. The company established the Combined Delivery System, whereby the same kind of products coming from different suppliers can be centralized into 223 Combined Delivery Centres (CDCs). The combined distribution system allows products from different suppliers to be loaded on the same trucks for delivery to Seven-Eleven stores. Combined distribution consolidates product shipment from manufacturers to stores at similar optimum temperatures. In 22 years, SEJ has reduced the average number of vehicles visiting each store from 70 a day in 1974 to ten a day in 1998. Delivery routes and time are also well organized to maintain high efficiency. Competitors SEJ is the largest CVS chain in Japan in terms of the number of stores, sales, and net income followed by Lawson, C&S, Familymart, and Ministop. These top-five companies dominate the market with almost 90% market share. All four competitors operate franchise businesses with store networks expanding all over Japan. Competitors are increasingly investing in EC business to compete and establish dominance in a new area. In 1997, Lawson began implementing multimedia terminals in stores to gain first mover advantage. Lawson also tries to differentiate itself in the Internet shopping site named @Lawson by launching new services such net coupons, which was rare in Japan in 1999. Future Vision The company strives to achieve the maxim Ã¢â¬Å"the retail business should always keep up with change of customer demandsÃ¢â¬ with three principles. 1. Responsiveness to changing customer needs and continuous improvement of customer services 2. Manufacturing retailer 3. The combination of demand chain and supply chain management with the common platform. Case Questions: 1. A convenience store chain attempts to be responsive and provide customersÃ what they need, when they need it, where they need it. What are some different ways that a convenience store supply chain can be responsive? What are some risks in each case? As In this increasingly competitive world, the whole concept of convenience stores from the existing concept of retail outlets have emerged to improve competitive advantage of businesses by enhancing customer service and by providing him with superior quality of products and experience. However, attaining this competitive advantage comes with added costs and risks. As responsiveness towards a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s demands increase, a convenience store chain gets exposed to greater uncertainty and risks- the risk of not having timely supply of essential goods, system breakdowns etc. A convenience store may deal in both perishable food items like processed fast foods and non-perishable items( life of more than 1 month) like frozen foods, magazines, beverages, and other consumer items like soaps, detergents etc. It is critical for any convenience store to have a tightly linked supply chain system for perishable items that need to be supplied to the final stores on daily basis. This distribution system ought to be flexible and highly responsive to alter delivery schedules depending on customer demands. The following are some ways that shall make convenience store supply chains operating on market dominance strategies more responsive- Local capacity: The convenience store chains can provide local cooking capacity that is, live counters at the stores and assemble foods on demand. The Inventory could be stored as raw material under controlled conditions at the stores and be supplied by the distributors at regular intervals. This would eliminate the need to supply fresh and fast foods from the to the outlets thrice a day thus bringing down the transportation cost of the entire distribution system and would add certainty to the production and distribution schedules. This strategy of selling fresh foods to customers would also enhance customer confidence in the brand. This is seen at the U.S. fast food restaurant franchise Subway where dinner and lunch sandwiches are assembled on demand. The main risk with this approach is that capacity is decentralized, leading to poorer utilization. High level of integration- One way of insuring more responsiveness is by further decentralizing the entire system. This can be attained by dividing each region further intoÃ zones and having production plants in each zone nearer to each convenience stores. This would increase the set up cost for the parent company but in the long run but would also inhance the flow of information and service among the stores, suppliers and distributors thus increasing customer responsiveness and satisfaction. Local inventory: Responsiveness to customer demands can also be attained by having inventory available at the store at all times. This allows for the centralization of cooking capacity. But the main disadvantage of this way is not delivering fresh foods to customers thus increasing customer dissatisfaction and need for extra storage space. Rapid replenishment: Another approach is to set up rapid replenishment and supply the stores what they need and when they need it. This allows for centralization of cooking capacity, low levels of inventory, but increases the cost of replenishment and receiving. 2. Seven-ElevenÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain strategy in Japan can be described as attempting to micro-match supply and demand using rapid replenishment. What are some risks associated with this choice? The main risk for convenience stores to adopt a supply chain system that works on rapid replenishment strategy is the potentially high cost of transportation and receiving at stores. The suppliers and factories are centrally located but the stores are scattered all across the city. So the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to supply fresh foods multiple times a day to all the stores increases the transportation costs. This one aspect can be taken care of by probably decentralizing the authority to produce fresh foods at convenience stores itself. Also, the fact that goods get unloaded multiple times a day reduces the store efficiency and increases customer dissatisfactions due to reduced services and frequent disruptions. This tends to fade away the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s experience at the store. Sudden breakdown of the information system or the transportation system connecting the stores to distribution centre and suppliers would also bring the functioning of the entire system to a halt leading to customer inconvenience and the resulting loss in sales. Thus convenience stores that attempt to micro-match supply and demand using rapid replenishment must take extra precautions to ensure timely delivery of goods, proper functioning of the information and transportation system, and customerÃ¢â¬â¢s convenience 3. What has Seven-Eleven done in its choice of facility location, inventory management, transportation, and information infrastructure to develop capabilities that support its supply chain strategy in Japan? Seven-Eleven Japan has chosen to operate a highly responsive operation and has chosen a supply chain design that supports this strategy. Their facility location choices are to saturate an area with stores, thereby making it easy for customers to shop and their own delivery trucks to move from store to store to replenish inventory. Seven-ElevenÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory system is run on an information system that transmits directly to the supplier and distribution centre; goods are produced using a pull system to replace what has been sold during that delivery period. The transportation system is flexible to maximize responsiveness while also achieving efficiency. All choices made by Seven-Eleven are structured to lower its transportation and receiving costs. For example, its area dominance strategy of opening at least 50-60 stores in an area helps with marketing but also lowers the cost of replenishment. All manufacturing facilities are centralized to get the maximum benefit of capacity aggregation and also lower the inbound transportation cost from the manufacturer to the distribution centre (DC). Seven-Eleven also requires all suppliers to deliver to the DC where products are sorted by temperature. This reduces the outbound transportation cost because of aggregation of deliveries across multiple suppliers. It also lowers the receiving cost. The information infrastructure is set up to allow store managers to place orders based on analysis of consumption data. The information infrastructure also facilitates the sorting of an order at the DC and receiving of the order at the store. The key point to emphasize here is that most decisions by Seven-Eleven are structured to aggregate transportation and receiving to make both cheaper. 4. Seven-Eleven does not allow direct store delivery in Japan but has all products flow through its distribution centre. What benefit does Seven-Eleven derive from this policy? When is direct store delivery more appropriate? Direct store delivery (DSD) would lower the utilization of the outbound trucks from the Seven-Eleven DC. It would also increase the receiving costs at the stores because of the increased deliveries. Thus, Seven-Eleven forces all suppliers to come in through the DC. DSD is most appropriate when stores are large and nearly-full truck load quantities are coming from a supplier to a store. This was the case, for example, in large U.S. Home Depot stores. For smaller stores it is almost always beneficial to have an intermediate aggregation point to lower the cost of freight. In fact, Home Depot itself is setting up these intermediate facilities for its new stores that are often smaller. In case of seven eleven, the benefit of delivery through its own distribution centre is total control of the system, aggregation of demand and minimal disruption at the retail outlets. If several suppliers tried to make two or three deliveries every day, it would detract from the store managerÃ¢â¬â¢s abil ity to provide customer service. Each of these suppliers would likely prefer their own way of doing things, their own inventory system, truck size, etc., which would make things more difficult for the Seven-Eleven system. The demand and production data would have to be shared rather than residing on Seven-ElevenÃ¢â¬â¢s system from cradle to grave. For items that cannot be prepared quickly, pull production may not provide the responsiveness that Seven-Eleven desires. In this case, the DC concept allows pooling of inventory which increases their overall service level while minimizing total system inventory of those items. Direct store delivery might be more appropriate if the items being delivered do not need bulk broken at a DC, have special handling requirements (lottery tickets, newspapers, or alcoholic beverages), or the supplier has a system that is consonant with Seven-ElevenÃ¢â¬â¢s (perhaps a regular bread run that has an information system that integrates with Seven-ElevenÃ¢â¬â¢s). 5. What do you think about the 7dream concept for Seven-Eleven in Japan? From a supply chain perspective, is it likely to be more successful in Japan or the United States? Why? 7dream makes sense given that Japanese customers are happy to receive their shipments at the local convenience store. From a logistics perspective, online deliveries can piggy back on Seven-ElevenÃ¢â¬â¢s existing distributionÃ network in Japan. Deliveries from the online supplier can be brought to the DC where they are sorted along with other deliveries destined for a store. This should increase the utilization of outbound transportation allowing Seven-Eleven to offer a lower cost alternative to having a package carrier deliver the product at home. The primary negatives are that 7dream will use up storage space and require the store to be able to retrieve specific packages for customers. One can argue that the concept may be more successful in Japan given the existing distribution network of Seven-Eleven and the frequency of visits by customers. Online delivery is able to link with the existing network. The high visit frequency ensures that packages are not occupying valuable store shelf space for a long time. Also, the frequent visits ensure that the marginal cost to the customer of picking up at Japanese Seven-Eleven is small. The 7dream concept allows e-commerce sites to use Seven-Eleven stores as drop-off and collection points for Japanese e-commerce customers. It has been extremely successful; a recent survey revealed that 92 per cent of the customers of one e-commerce company preferred to have their items shipped this way. It seems likely that this concept would work only for high density urban areas; It is being established in congested, less-safe urban areas for a service like package delivery. Suburban customers in the US would likely find it incredibly inconvenient and avoid it unless home delivery was not possible and the alternative was to pick up a package (for example, one that must be signed for) at the local carrierÃ¢â¬â¢s office. This is less likely to be the case in the United States. 6. Seven-Eleven is attempting to duplicate the supply chain structure that has succeeded in Japan in the United States with the introduction of CDCs. What are the pros and cons of this approach? Keep in mind that stores are also replenished by wholesalers and DSD by manufacturers. The supply chain structure for the US market can be close, but it can never be exactly as it is in Japan, and will probably not operate as smoothly as in Japan. Some of this is attributable to the culture and the corporate culture. Regardless of how like-minded supply chain partners claim to be, it would be extremely difficult to duplicate the collective spirit thatÃ permeates Seven-Eleven Japan. The disadvantages of this system is that Seven-Eleven in the U.S. would probably have to run two system depending on whether the area could be treated as a dense urban location or a suburban or rural outpost. The cost of running the Seven-Eleven Japan system in middle-America would be prohibitive. The U.S. consumer in that region has too many alternatives that have 24 hour operations and are within a short drive. The difficulty of duplicating the Japan supply chain structure in the United States follows primarily from the much lower density of U.S. Seven-Eleven stores. This is compounded by the fact that Seven-Eleven stores are getting both direct store deliveries as well as wholesaler deliveries to its stores. Setting up its own DCs does not allow Seven-Eleven to get the same level of transportation aggregation as it gets in Japan. Its own distribution system would help more if all wholesaler deliveries and direct store deliveries were stopped and routed through the DC. Even then, having its own distribution system would add much less value than in Japan given the lower density of stores and larger distance between stores. Perhaps a hybrid system can be applied in select markets to test the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s efficacy in the U.S. 7. The United States has food service distributors that also replenish convenience stores. What are the pros and cons to having a distributor replenish convenience stores versus a company like Seven-Eleven managing its own distribution function? The advantage of someone else replenishing stores is primarily cost; less transportation, material handling, and labour costs for your own system. Depending on how supply and reordering operations are designed, it might be possible for the distributors to perform the aggregation/demand smoothing function with minimal intervention by the individual Seven-Eleven franchise. One can contend that a distributor brings much more value to the table in the United States relative to Japan. Given the lower density of stores, a distributor is able to aggregate deliveries across many competing stores. This allows a distributor to reach levels of aggregation that cannot be achieved by a single chain such as Seven-Eleven. The disadvantage of the outsourced replenishment service is an overall loss of control, an increasedÃ number of deliveries to each store, and the difficulty of integrating information flows across disparate systems. Also, Seven-Eleven is unable to exploit having a large number of stores. In fact, it may be argued that going through the distributor has Seven-Eleven subsidize deliveries to competing smaller chains that may also be using the same distributor