Thursday, October 31, 2019
Globalization - Essay Example We are exposed to technology now a day. For every work we have to use technology of certain kind. Technology is everywhere we see; from television to nuclear weapons we see the use of technology. Technology has made this easier for everyone to communicate with each other from different countries. People can see each other, talk to each other, even they live far away from each other. This has only become possible because of electronics. We have to use technology in every walk of life because we are totally dependent on technology as this present era is said to be an age of technology. No work can be done without technology now. We use pen for writing our stuff and now we use laptops for this purpose. Use of technology is the same for both but because of advancement in technology, means of using them differs. But technology remains there every time to facilitate us. We cannot survive without technology in this modern world. If we face any health issues we have hospitals and surgical in struments are there to tackle with operations and surgery work. If we feel unsafe we use weapons and safety instruments for our safety. Globalization brings different nations of the world closer and help them to join hands in terms of economy , society , education and politics. Globalization minimizes the distances among nations and increases their communication level. Globalization and use of technology enables people to communicate with one another for the sake for nation development and this is the biggest achievement by the use of technology that all nations are together and in touch with each other. Having different culture different language doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter now. Technology has removed all those differences. One culture of a country can be easily mixed up with another country. Globalization amalgamates integration as well as interaction. Globalization is now linked with technologies in every aspect of human civilization through making countries build new policies that wou ld help them to open economies internationally as well as domestically. Free market economies systems is developed and that provides the path for mounting potential for industries and economies and provides the platform for investments and international trade. In this way, technology has played an important role to serve as an opportunity for marketing, production, foreign markets and trades. Technology has an important role in business marketing. E.g. Advertising is basically is the way of communication and negotiating with people whom you think as your potential consumers for the company.. And this has all become possible because of digital-advertising. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s technology itself. Advertisements and digital promotions contribute a lot to sales volume of the company and as this world is exposed to technology so this is the need of hour to adopt digital ways for promotions to have boom in their sales. So technology plays an essential role in business sector to flourish and grow . As this world is turning into electronic-world and use of internet and its awareness is increasing day-by-day so organizations should go with the flow. Organizations advertise electronically, non-electronically, and promote their products through internet because technology is the major key to increase sales and target the selected market for generating revenue. Firms and individuals have already realized the importance of electronic gadgets and advancement in technology. Globalization is affecting this world in
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Book Review on Urban Poverty Essay Urban poverty is the outcome of urban-bias development projects being predominantly financed by the external capital, either in the form of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) or Aid. The urban-bias industrialization strategy performed as a pull factor for the rural unemployed. This strategy contributed to the expanding of urban informal sectors where unskilled as well as highly unorganized day labours remain concentrated in the urban and semi-urban areas. It is also debated that the redistribution of capital investment towards the rural based agricultural activities including plantation sectors through the coordinated efforts of both public and private sectors such as civil and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can go a long way to break the growing negative effects of over urbanization on poverty, moral and social crimes as consequent of unequal economic growth. The author, Pramanik discusses urban poverty in Malaysia cases. He begins with the overview of the poverty scenario followed by research methods and research findings along with summarization policy suggestions. This book contented five chapters including appendices, references and index. In the introductory chapter (pp. 1-5), Pramanik says poverty is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that is hard to come up with a universally acceptable definition of poverty. Most commonly argued issue on poverty is whether poverty should be looked at from absolute or relative perspective. Absolute poverty based on specific income level called poverty line income (PLI) that can be calculated either using the market value of a basket full of goods and services considered essential for reasonably acceptable standard of living. On the contrary, relative poverty arises when we talk about how good or bad one member is doing in relation to another member living in the same society. According to OÃ¢â¬â¢Boyle, poverty is a concept that is both absolute and relative because human beings are at the same time individual and social (OÃ¢â¬â¢Boyle E.Ã J, 1990). In chapter two (pp. 7-20), Pramanik talks about poverty scenario in Malaysia. He argues that the income poverty using official poverty line income seems near to the absolute poverty whereas the human poverty based on the degree of human deprivation resembles relative poverty, which is ensuing of unequal access to income earning opportunity. Because of this, the author focuses more on human aspect of poverty in terms of its long term implications of social factors. Micro level study (Pramanik, 2004) do suggest that family size either in urban or rural areas of the four concentrated states namely, Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perak is quite above the family size used for the national level. Pramanik (1997 2000) examined that rural poverty in the four poverty-concentrated states on multi dimensional aspects of the problem such as, social, economic, demographic, psychological, political, moral, historical, attitudinal, and natural factors. In chapter three (pp. 5-20), the author discusses regarding research methodology. The study is based on the primary data as well as secondary information. The primary data collected through the administration of well-structured questionnaire in the middle of 2006. The sampling technique used is purposive as well as random and based on participatory observation method. Around 3112 households from 8 major cities living in poverty concentrated areas classified by squatters, low-cost buildings, longhouses etc. were selected for data collection. He defined Ã¢â¬Å"householdÃ¢â¬ as an entity of those living under the same roof as well as eating from the same kitchen. In chapter four (pp. 21-97), he talks about the research findings. The author uses purposive and collecting sampling technique to identify the level of poverty suffered by those living in the squatters and in the area/blocks/buildings designed for the lower income groups in the major cities of Malaysia. This is because those who are living in these areas suffer different degrees and types of poverty measured by the level of deprivations. The household having less than RM 398(less than half of the poverty line) is called hardcore poor, household earning equal to RM 398 but less than 663 is called overall poor and more than RM 663 is called non-poor. The best performing state in terms of lowest incidence of overall poverty (0. 9) with no hardcore poor followed by KL (2. 6) and JB (8. 1) inclusive of hardcore and overall poor. While less developed states- KB, KT, and AS, KB experiences the highest incidence of poverty hardcore poor and overall poor of 33. 7 followed by KT (23. 4) and AS (14). On the other hand, Sabah and Sarawak are worst performing states reported in 9MP and his survey data. The author suggests that as far as poverty reduction is concerned Sabah and Sarawak are still the worst among all other regions states in Malaysia in 2007. The poverty is gender bias is a universal when hardcore poverty is concerned. In terms of hardcore and overall poverty, the female Ã¢â¬âheaded households are more likely to be poorer by 50 percent compared the male-headed households. The higher dependency of more members on a few incomes of earners in the households also creates a constraint on resources allocation by the poor households. Approximately 60 percent of poor householdÃ¢â¬â¢s more than two members depend on the income of one earner. The lower dependency has implication for the ability of the poor households to hold out poverty at times of economic recession or downturn since higher dependency manifest through the lower dependency ratio is positively related to higher unemployment. Pramanik found on the distribution of households based on the dependency ratio and cities seem to suggest that the relatively higher percentages of households (68. 8) from LDS are associated with higher dependency as emerged through the lower coefficients of DR (0. ) as opposed to a lower percentage of households from MDS (53. 3) experiencing lower dependency ratio. Human capital is considered as the most fundamental asset. The presence of economic opportunities created by the growth, an individual with one additional year of education acquires more ability to compete and derive benefits from the market. As for as the illiterac y, the author suggests that the percentage of households having no education in much higher for the three Least Developed States( LDS) as compare to the More Developed States (MDS). If the education level exceeding 6 years but less than 12 year are considered as a measure of better educational standard, the highest percentage of household members (72. 7) come from 3 MDS followed by the lowest (57) from the two LDS. The better quality of life achievable through higher level of education has convinced the younger generation regardless of race or geographical distribution of population to pursue education by all possible means. So that government spends money for education, skills and training. Dr. Muhammad Yunus claims that access to credit should be treated as a part of human rights. The access to credit empowers the poor households to make use of their survival skills thus unleashing their productive potentials. Every human being is imparted with some sorts of surviving skills by the Almighty Ã¢â¬âthe creator. Dr. Yunus has proven that an access to small credit can significantly help the asset less poor to unleash their hidden potentials to earn more and combat poverty. The poor have nobody to talk to and no place to go. Sometimes, they have no work to do and no food to eat and finally none to depend on. They are always by-passed and looked down upon (Narayan, 2000). The poor are not even trusted because of lack of social status. Of the three races the Chinese seem to be more satisfied with their neighbors (69 percent as very helpful) followed by the Indians (46 percent) and Malays take a middle position (64 percent). The criteria of social capital there appear to be a positive relationship between the lower Mean Monthly Household Income (MMHY) of the Indians and the lower level of trustworthiness as a proxy for very helpful neighbors. The relationship between trustworthiness and success in trade seems quite obvious among the Chinese compared to the Malays and the Indians. There are lots of arguments regarding poverty. Ã¢â¬Å"We are so rich, because they are so poorÃ¢â¬ (Landes, 1998). It means the existence of poor is essential for survival for rich. Yunus believes that the poverty is created by the system (Yunus with Jolis, 1998). The poor in any society are best known for their simplicity, altruism, moderation, complacency, peaceful coexistence, moral, conservative as well as traditional values. The presence of high morality and the future uncertainty, the poverty stricken parents never consider additional babies as a liability. For the poor, children are always considered as assets and blessing of God because they are the ones the poor parents can really depend on in their old age. Old Ã¢â¬âage pension or insurance for all are hardly found in the developing world, traditional babies are always treated as insurance for the old age. The author found that in general, the respondents from low income urban households give higher priority to good values like the spirit of tolerance reflected through ability to respect other races or religion, ability to maintain oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own culture, ability to live like a good human being, having good moral standard. The findings clearly suggest that they show least preference for blindly imitating the life style of the better-off. So, the poor who are known for their simple and moderate life are not the victim of the demonstration effects. Concentration of power, lack of transparency and good governance among many others, interact to perpetual corruption in less developed countries (Pramanik, 2003 2007). In last chapter in his book (pp. 97-106), the author summarizes his findings and gives policy suggestions. Firstly, poverty is gender based. As far as poor, inclusive of hardcore and overall poor are concerned the female headed households far outweigh the male headed households. Secondly, there is an inverse relationship between family size and incidence of poverty. Thirdly, higher dependency measured by lower dependency ratio seems to be positively related to the incidence of poverty across the regions. Fourth, the access to human capital in terms of level of education emerges as one of the most important determinants of poverty. Fifth, the access to financial capital in the form of loan made seems to be a good determinant of household income regardless of regional or racial consideration. Finally, based on the perception of the urban poor about development, Pramanik findings suggest that, the human capital such as easy access to education, social overhead capital encompassing good roads, good and owned house, water and electricity deserve the highest priority. The author gives some policy suggestions relevant to the policy-makers, planners and administrators. First, in line with three major strategies such as, enhancing the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s competitiveness, strengthening human capital development and ensuring the well-being of all Malaysians within the contexts of elaborate policy strategies under ninth Malaysian plan, that will be to help the primary and secondary level students from broken families, unemployed parents, low income households living in crammed and unhealthy housing conditions. Second, the plan to establish different growth corridors covering the less and the least developed states. Four, having the good record of NGOs in eradicating poverty and enhancing social-economic well-being of the target groups, the existing public level institutions may gradually encourage the NGOs/welfare organization/civil societies supported either publicly or privately to shoulder responsibility in overcoming poverty. Finally, efforts can be made to raise the status of Aim as a full-pledge bank for the poor as like Grameen bank of Bangladesh to deal with poverty eradication. In conclusion it can be said that the author, Pramanik expounded very well regarding the poverty of Malaysia. The urban poverty is indistinguishably linked to rural poverty. In fact, the former is caused by the latter. The Pull and Push factors can significantly explain the prevailing dismal conditions associated with urban poverty. Based on the details findings on the multi-dimensional aspects of urban poverty, it can be suggested that the development should be taken to the people and not the people to the development which is mostly confined to the urban areas.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
A Pestel Analysis Of Malaysia Economics Essay Introduction During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore and the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo joined the Federation. The first several years of the countrys history were marred by a Communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapores secession from the Federation in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials to expansion in manufacturing, services, and tourism. Economy overview: Malaysia, a middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in Islamic finance, high technology industries, medical technology, and pharmaceuticals. The NAJIB administration also is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and to wean the economy off of its dependence on exports. Nevertheless, exports particularly of electronics remain a significant driver of the economy. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel, combined with strained government finances, has forced Kuala Lumpur to reduce government subsidies. The government is also trying to lessen its dependence on state oil producer Petronas, which supplies at least 40% of government revenue. The central bank maintains healthy foreign exchange reserves and its well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysias exposure to riskier financial instruments and the global financial crisis. Nevertheless, decreasing worldwide demand for consumer goods hurt Malaysias exports and economic growth in 2009, although both showed signs of recovery in 2010. In order to attract increased investment, NAJIB has also sought to revise the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but he has encountered significant opposition, especially from Malay na tionalists. Statistics GDP $381.1 billion (2009 est.)Rank: 30 GDP growth 2.2% (2009 est.) GDP per capita $14,800 (2009 est.) GDP by sector agriculture: 10.1% industry: 42.3% services: 47.6% Inflation (CPI) 0.4% (2009 est.) Population below poverty line 3.5% (2007 est.) Labour force by occupation agriculture: (13%), industry: (36%), services: (51%) Unemployment 5% (2009 est.) Main industries Peninsular Malaysia rubber and palm oil processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber, tourism, petroleum production and refining, logging Economic Policies The Malaysian New Economic Policy was created in 1971 with the aim of bringing Malays a 30% share of the economy of Malaysia and eradicating poverty amongst Malays, primarily through encouraging enterprise ownership by Bumiputeras. After 30 years of the program, the NEP had somewhat met some of its goals. Bumiputera ownership increased to 18.9% in 2004 against 2.4% in 1970 and poverty decreased to 8.3% in 2004 against 64.8% in the 1970s. The NEP is accused of creating an oligarchy, and creating a subsidy mentality. Political parties such as Parti Keadilan Rakyat and Democratic Action Party have proposed a new policy which will be equal for every Malaysian, regardless of race. When the Democratic Action Party was elected in the state of Penang in 2008, it announced that it will do away with the NEP, claiming that it Ã breeds nepotism, corruption and systemic inefficiency. On April 21, 2009, the prime minister Najib Tun Razak has announced liberalisation of 27 services sub-sector by abolishing the 30% bumiputera requirement. The move is seen as the government efforts to increase investment the service sector of the economy. According to the premier, many more sectors of the economy will be liberalized. On June 30, 2009, the premier announces further liberation moves including the dismantling of the Bumiputera equity quotas and repealing the guidelines of the Foreign Investment Committee, which was responsible to monitor foreign shareholding in Malaysian companies. However, any Malaysian companies that wish to list in Malaysia would still need to offer 50 percent of public shareholding spread to Bumiputera investors. Politics of Malaysia The politics of Malaysia takes place in the framework of a federal constitutional monarchy, in which the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is head of state and the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the federal government and the 13 state governments. Federal legislative power is vested in the federal parliament and the 13 state assemblies. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, though the executive maintains a certain level of influence in the appointment of judges to the courts. The Constitution of Malaysia is codified and the system of government is based on the Westminster system. Malaysia has a multi-party system since the first direct election of the Federal Legislative Council of Malaya in 1955 on a first-past-the-post basis. The ruling party since then has always been the Alliance Party (Malay: Parti Perikatan) coalition and subsequently from 1973 onwards, its successor the Barisan Nasional (National Front) coalition. The Barisan Nasional coalition currently consists of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC) and 11 other political parties. Although Malaysian politics has been relatively stable, critics allege that the government, ruling party, and administrationare intertwined with few countervailing forces. However, since 8 March 2008 General Election, medias coverage on countrys politics has been noticeably increased, making the politics more transparent to the citizens. The current Prime Minister is Dato Seri Mohd. Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak. He took office following the retirement of Dato Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (colloquially known as Pak Lah) on April, 2009. The national media are largely controlled by the government and by political parties in the Barisan Nasional/National Front ruling coalition and the opposition has little access to the media. The print media are controlled by the Government through the requirement of obtaining annual publication licences under the Printing and Presses Act. In 2007, a government agency the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission issued a directive to all private television and radio stations to refrain from broadcasting speeches made by opposition leaders. The official state ideology is the Rukunegara, which has been described as encouraging respect for a pluralistic, multireligious and multicultural society. However, political scientists have argued that the slogan of Bangsa, Agama, Negara (race, religion, nation) used by UMNO constitutes an unofficial ideology as well. Both ideologies have generally been used to reinforce a conservative political ideology, one that is Malay-centred Executive power is vested in the cabinet led by the prime minister; the Malaysian constitution stipulates that the prime minister must be a member of the lower house of parliament who, in the opinion of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, commands a majority in parliament. The cabinet is chosen from among members of both houses of Parliament and is responsible to that body. In recent years the opposition have been campaigning for free and fairer elections within Malaysia. On 10 November 2007, a mass rally, called the 2007 Bersih Rally, took place in the Dataran Merdeka Kuala Lumpur at 3pm to demand for clean and fair elections. The gathering was organised by BERSIH, a coalition comprising political parties and civil society groups(NGOs), and drew supporters from all over the country. Malaysias government has intensified efforts on March 6, 2008 to portray opposition figure Anwar Ibrahim as a political turncoat, days ahead of Malaysian general election, 2008 on March 8, 2008 that will determine whether he poses a legitimate threat to the ruling coalition. Campaigning wrapped up March 7, 2008 for general elections that could see gains for Malaysias opposition amid anger over race and religion among minority Chinese and Indians. Malaysians voted March 8, 2008 in parliamentary elections. Election results showed that the ruling government suffered a setback when it failed to obtain two-thirds majority in parliament, and five out of 12 state legislatures were won by the opposition parties. Reasons for the setback of the ruling party, which has retained power since the nation declared independence in 1957, are the rising inflation, crime and ethnic tensions. Law of Malaysia The law of Malaysia is mainly based on the common law legal system. This was a direct result of the colonisation of Malaya, Sarawak, and North Borneo by Britain from the early 19th century to 1960s. The supreme law of the land-the Constitution of Malaysia-sets out the legal framework and rights of Malaysian citizens. Federal laws enacted by the Parliament of Malaysia applies throughout the country. There are also state laws enacted by the State Legislative Assemblies which applies in the particular state. The constitution of Malaysia also provides for a unique dual justice system-the secular laws (criminal and civil) and sharia laws. Dual justice system The dual system of law is provided in Article 121(1A) of the Constitution of Malaysia. Article 3 also provides that Islamic law is a state law matter with the exception for the Federal Territories of Malaysia. Islamic law refers to the sharia law, and in Malaysia it is known and spelled as syariah. The court is known as the Syariah Court. Looking at the Malaysian legal system as a whole, sharia law plays a relatively small role in defining the laws on the country. It only applies to Muslims. With regards to civil law, the Syariah courts has jurisdiction in personal law matters, for example marriage, inheritance, and apostasy. In some states there are sharia criminal laws, for example there is the Kelantan Syariah Criminal Code Enactment 1993. Their jurisdiction is however limited to imposing fines for an amount not more than RM 3000, and imprisonment to not more than 6 months. In August 2007, the then Chief Justice of Malaysia proposed to replace the current common law applicat ion in Malaysia with sharia law. As an example of the dual system, sometimes a nightclub is raided, and Muslim patrons drinking alcohol are prosecuted in Shariah courts, while the others are allowed to drink. Also the nightclub operator is not charged with any offense, because he is not legally required to check if customers are Muslim before serving them. Complications Complications have arisen with regard to the dual justice system, for example with regard to freedom of religion. Article 11 of the Constitution provides that Every person has the right to profess and practice his religion. However in the case of Lina Joy-a Malay who converted to Christianity-the Federal Court of Malaysia refused to allow her to change her religion indicated in her identity card (MyKad). The judges held that they had no jurisdiction on the matter-that it was a matter of the Syariah Court, as indicated in Article 121(1A) of the Constitution. Technology in Malaysia Science Policy in Malaysia is regulated by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation. Other ministries, such as the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Health also have science departments. Training in scientific areas was promoted during the 1970s and 1980s. From 1987-1997 research and development used 0.24% of GNP, and in 1998 high-tech exports made up 54% of Malaysias manufactured exports. In 2002 the Malaysian National Space Agency (Angkasa) was formed to deal with all of Malaysias activities in space, and to promote space education and space experiments. It is focused on developing the RazakSAT satellite, which is a remote sensing satellite with CCD cameras. In early 2006, Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor and three other finalists were selected for the Angkasawan spaceflight programme. This programme came about when Russia agreed to transport one Malaysian to the International Space Station as part of a multi-billion dollar purchase of 18 Russian Sukhoi Su-30MKM fighter jets by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In an effort to create a self-reliant defensive ability and support national development Malaysia privatized some of its military facilities in the 1970s. This has created a defence industry, which in 1999 was brought under the Malaysia Defence Industry Council. The government continues to try and promote this sector and its competitiveness, actively marketing the defence industry. One way it does this is through the Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition, one of the largest defence and civil showcases in the Asia Pacific, regularly attended by over 500 companies. The Malaysian Armed Forces relies heavily on local military technology and high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured by foreign countries. Environment of Malaysia The environment of Malaysia refers to the biotas and geologies that constitute the natural environment of this Southeast Asian nation. Ecologically, Malaysia is a megadiverse nation with a biodiverse range of flora and fauna found in various ecoregions throughout the country. Tropical rainforests encompass from 59% to 70% of Malaysias total land area, of which 11.6% is pristine. Malaysia has the worlds fifth largest mangrove area, which totals over a half a million hectares (over 1.2 million acres). Human intervention poses a significant threat to the natural environment of this country. Agriculture, forestry and urbanisation contribute to the destruction of forests, mangroves and other thriving ecosystems in the country. Ecosystems and landscapes are dramatically altered by human development, including but not limited to the construction of roads and damming of rivers. Geographical phenomena, such as landslides and flooding in the Klang Valley, along with haze, stem from widespread deforestation. Subtle climate change occurs as a direct result of air pollution and the greenhouse effect, which in turn is caused by the emission of greenhouse gases. Low-lying areas near the coastline of Sabah and Sarawak are under threat from current sea level rise. The environment is the subject of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment at the federal level. The Department of Wildlife and National Parks is responsible for the preservation of flora and fauna in Malaysia. Several environmental organisations have been established to raise awareness regarding the environmental issues in Malaysia. Environmental issues There are a number of environmental issues faced by Malaysia, such as deforestation and pollution. According to a study by Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies in 2008, about 30% of Malaysian coastline is subject to varying degrees of erosion. According to the United Nations, Malaysias deforestation rate is the highest among tropical nations. The countrys annual deforestation rate increased 86% between 1999-2000 and 2000-2005. Malaysia lost an average of 140,200 hectares of its forests or 0.65% of its total forest area every year since 2000, whereas in the 1990s, the country lost an average of 78,500 hectares or 0.35 percent of its forests annually. Widespread urbanisation, agricultural fires and forest conversion for oil palm plantations and other forms of agriculture are the main causes of Malaysias high deforestation rate. Logging is responsible for forest degradation in the country, and local timber companies have been accused by environmental organisations of failing to practice sustainable forest management. Mining in peninsular Malaysia has left a mark on the environment. Deforestation, pollution of rivers, and siltation have resulted in losses of agriculture, and road projects have opened new areas to colonisation. Air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions is a major issue in the urban areas of Malaysia. Malaysia is ranked 42nd in the world in terms of vehicle ownership per capita, with 273 Malaysians having vehicles out of every 1000. Public transportation has been introduced in the form of bus networks and railway systems as mitigation, but utilisation rates are low. Water pollution occurs due to the discharge of untreated sewage; the west coast of the Peninsular Malaysia is the most heavily populated area. 40% of the rivers in Malaysia are heavily polluted. The country has 580 cubic km of water, of which 76% is used for farming and 13% is used for industrial activity. Cities in Malaysia produce an average of 1.5 million tons of solid waste per year. In 2000, Malaysia was ranked fourth in the world in terms of per capita greenhouse gas emissions after taking into account land use change with 37.2 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per capita. Periodic fires, which usually coincide with the events of el NiÃ ±o, burn thousands of hectares of forests across Malaysia, especially in Malaysian Borneo. The haze originating from these fires and the fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia typically have adverse health effects on the populace, besides causing air pollution. In particular, the 1997 Southeast Asian haze, the 2005 Malaysian haze and the 2006 Southeast Asian haze were caused by slash and burn activities in neighbouring Indonesia. Society of Malaysia Malaysia is a multi-cultural society. The main ethnic groups are the native Malays as well as large populations of Chinese, and Indians. When visiting the country it is clear that the ethnicities retain their religions, customs and way of life. The most important festivals of each group are public holidays. Although growing up, children are educated in the same schools and will eventually work in the same offices, few marry outside their own ethnicity. Families tend to socialise within their own ethnic group all part of retaining their individual traditions and lifestyles. Despite the ethnic differences there are commonalities culturally speaking. Social Stratification Classes and Castes- Class position in Malaysia depends on a combination of political connections, specialized skills, ability in English, and family money. The Malaysian elite, trained in overseas universities, is highly cosmopolitan and continues to grow in dominance as Malaysias middle class expands. Even with the substantial stratification of society by ethnicity, similar class experiences in business and lifestyle are bridging old barriers. Symbols of Social Stratification- In Malaysias market economy, consumption provides the primary symbols of stratification. Newly wealthy Malaysians learn how to consume by following the lead of the Malay royalty and the prosperous business families of Chinese descent. A mobile phone, gold jewelry, and fashionable clothing all indicate ones high rank in the Malaysian social order. Given the striking mobility of Malaysian society, ones vehicle marks class position even more than home ownership. Most Malaysians can distinguish the difference between makes of cars, and access to at least a motor scooter is a requirement for participation in contemporary Malaysian social life. Kuala Lumpur has more motor vehicles than people. Skin color, often indicative of less or more time working in the hot tropical sun, further marks class position. Distinct class differences also appear in speech. Knowledge of English is vital to elevated class status, and a persons fluency in that language indexes t heir social background. Social Welfare and Change Programs The Malaysian government has promoted rapid social change to integrate a national society from its ethnic divisions. Its grandest program was originally called the New Economic Policy (NEP), implemented between 1971 and 1990 and continued in modified form as the National Development Policy (NDP). Since poverty eradication was an aim of the NEP a considerable amount of energy has gone to social welfare efforts. The consequences of these programs disseminate across the social landscape: home mortgages feature two rates, a lower one for Malays and a higher one for others; university admissions promote Malay enrolment; mundane government functions such as allocating hawker licenses have an ethnic component. But the government has also tried to ethnically integrate Malaysias wealthy class; therefore many NEP-inspired ethnic preferences have allowed prosperous Malays to accrue even greater wealth. The dream of creating an affluent Malaysia continues in the governments 1991 plan of Vision 2 020, which projects that the country will be fully developed by the year 2020. This new vision places faith in high technology, including the creation of a Multi-Media Super Corridor outside of Kuala Lumpur, as the means for Malaysia to join the ranks of wealthy industrialized countries, and to develop a more unified society. Porters Diamond of Competitiveness Factor conditions: These are the economists traditional factors of production: land, labor, capital, and infrastructure. Demand conditions: The characteristics of the domestic market, including the size, demand, value, and sophistication. Related supporting industries: The presence of suppliers and supporting industries that are equally competitive and of high quality. Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry: The regulatory and other governmental environment in which companies are created, organized, and managed, including the nature of the domestic competition. Stages in Economic Development The relative importance of the four factors depends on the stage of economic development of the industry or country. National economies, like industries, go through stages in their development. The first stage is factor-driven, with the economy based essentially on the traditional factors of production: natural resources, commodities, and availability of cheap power and labor. This was Malaysia of the 1960s and 70s, its primary competitive advantage being its cheap resources (rubber and tin), land and labor, and favorable tax treatment. These advantages were not only limiting but also transient. When commodity prices dropped, Malaysia lost its competitive advantage. When China entered the game with her endless supply of even cheaper labor and land, Malaysia could hardly compete. During this phase, the basic source of competitive advantage is obviously the factor conditions of the diamond. The next stage is investment driven where the competitive advantage is governed by the willingness of firms and nations to invest in modern factories, upgrade the skills of their workers, and adopt efficient technology. Factor conditions are still important, but in addition, the fourth-firms strategy, structure and rivalry-becomes the major determinant. This is where Malaysia is currently. The third stage is innovation driven where all four points of the diamond are in full play. This is where Malaysia aspires to be. With all four points in equal play, the relative role of factor-driven variables like cheap labor and commodities becomes relatively less important.
Friday, October 25, 2019
The United States Constitution Compared to the Communist Manifesto Both the Communist Manifesto and the United States Constitution share some common ideas. They are documents that strive for ideas that in opposition to one another. The Communist Manifesto and The Constitution of the United States both include what the relationship between an individual and society should be about. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels wrote the Communist Manifesto. Marx and Engels talked about in the Communist Manifesto what they thought to be the way to solve the problems in the world during that time. Those problems dealt with society, but mainly the poor. They thought that people during those times were too dependent on money and how much of it they made. They wrote the manifesto in hopes to change society. The form of government they used to do this was by way of the Communist Party. "The Communists, therefore, are on the one hand, practically, the most advanced and resolute section of the working-class parties of every country"[i] Within the Communist Party e veryone is equal, and all property belongs to the state. The Constitution of the United States on the other hand was written to restrict the amount of power the government could have. It allows people to have property unlike the Communist Manifesto. Within the Constitution, it is stipulated that the people have control over how much power the government has. According to the first amendment in the Constitution, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grieva... ...heir own liberty and freedom. The idea of what liberty and freedom are is discussed quite differently within the two documents. The constitution calls for democracy, where an individual can have the right to choose what they want their role in society to be. The manifesto helps to explain communism, in which the government decides for each person what his or her role in society is. Notes [i] Ã¢â¬Å"The Communist ManifestoÃ¢â¬ http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/treatise/communist_manifesto/mantwo.htm [ii] The United States ConstitutionÃ¢â¬ http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.billofrights.html#amendmenti [iii] Ã¢â¬Å"The Communist ManifestoÃ¢â¬ http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/treatise/communist_manifesto/manone.htm [iv] Ã¢â¬Å"The Communist ManifestoÃ¢â¬ http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/treatise/communist_manifesto/mantwo.htm
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Alcoholics Anonymous ( AA ) is an old pattern, dating back to twelvemonth 1935 when Bill W, experienced a reawakening in religious footings taking him on a way of recovery from the ironss of alcohol addiction ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Since that clip, many other people with alcoholic dependences have attributed the same sort of alleviation to this ideal motion. AA is referred as a religious family by its subsequent members. However, it is new to many, and they hardly understand the mechanisms, which underlie the construct of recovery ( George, 2005 ) . The spiritualty proof, an puzzling term, must apparently be based on physiological and psychological findings. An initial component of this paper is supplying a definition of spiritualty in empirical footings as done by AA Services ( 2002 ) stating that it is Ã¢â¬Å" that which develops in people some intent and significance in life. Ã¢â¬ This definition was amplified by indicating out that spiritualty as a human facet can be achieved Ã¢â¬Å" with engagement in a faith ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . It can every bit good be much broader than this, for case belief in naturalism, rationalism, God, household, humanitarianism, and humanistic disciplines. Ã¢â¬ The usage of such a term with this intension is of recent beginning. Anthropologists surprisingly have applied the word Ã¢â¬Å" religious Ã¢â¬ on many other concrete spiritual facets and shamanic pattern ( Paul, Mueller, David & A ; Teresa, 2001 ) . The current use of the same is apprehensible to hold derived ideally from legion beginnings, some of them specific to tendencies go oning late in American civilization at least apparent over the past century ( George, 2005 ) . Credence of this construct on orientation to oecumenic faith has led to an credence of the fact that the ritual pattern formalities may be less of relevancy than the values, which legion spiritual denominations hold. Acceptance of these bases of patterns for case speculation and complementary medical specialty has brought in another dimension to the construct. The AA outgrowth as a personal transmutation potent vehicle has besides been committed and vastly influential, as it brings in the term spiritualty to the spotlight of the mental wellness professionals every bit good as the general populace ( AA Services, 2002 ) . All these leads to acceptance by the populace of the several spiritually doctrines and pattern used in back uping the recovery from an unwellness, which have emerged outside of the cardinal sphere of biomedicine. Most psychiatric modes associate with a remarkable mechanism. Physiological research argues that spiritualty may be critical to the healing of legion upsets ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . Persons hiting higher on personality traits that relate to religious transcendency have been seen as holding characteristic activity in peculiar serotonergic encephalon sites, which suggest single physiological differences in response to religious attention ( AA Services, 2002 ) . The close relation between dream symbolism and symb olic idea is apparent from the activation of peculiar encephalon centres and inactivation of others, proposing an association between nervous map and religious metaphor. Response to the societal context of transition to the spirit may besides be related to neurophysiologic map ( George, 2005 ) . A individual in a diverse societal scene where a spiritually oriented position is present with strength may be influenced and follow that position ( Paul, Mueller, David & A ; Teresa, 2001 ) . Bill Ã¢â¬Ës experience at the origin of AA, where he was Ã¢â¬Å" caught up in the ideal rapture which there is deficiencies words to depict, Ã¢â¬ can non be researched with easiness. On the same note, bordering the methods to analyze the function of AA on recovery of alcohol addiction is hard. Twelve-step families need namelessness of their member ( George, 2005 ) . They are besides oriented toward the members Ã¢â¬Ë primacy of their demands beyond research aims, which research workers might suggest. Because of such demands, legion result surveies and researches on recovery through AA tie to followup on patients take parting in professionally based intervention and go toing AA meetings. Uncontrolled appraisals utilizing the Twelve-Step Ã¢â¬Å" Minnesota Model Ã¢â¬ for residential rehabilitation in a long-run facet in a professionally directed puting show promising consequences, nevertheless, one important survey that relates to AA-based recovery stands out due to its deducti on to experimental controls and randomisation ( AA Services, 2002 ) . A large-scale National Institute on Alcoholism rating was carried out utilizing the long-run followup. It showed clearly that Twelve-Step Facilitation, a grounded mode in design to advance AA attending, at least was every bit effectual as cognitive, and motivational techniques ( both of which in development were from through empirical observation grounded theoretical accounts of research ) , and it was extremely effectual than the techniques in developing long-run abstention ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Twelve-Step Facilitation, hence, has been a professionally based intercession, and AA application is a peer-led family. However, this result highlights the relevancy of farther controlled research on the 12-step plans engagement ( George, 2005 ) . Professional intervention of maltreatment of substance impaired doctors on the same note, offers an penetration into AA Ã¢â¬Ës value, with the fact that long-run abstention has critical public wellness deductions for the habit-forming populatio n. A sample of doctors, antecedently holding abused substances and abstainer for at least two old ages, in AA-based intervention antecedently, reported 12-step rank as the chief ground for the long-run recovery they achieved every bit good as the abstention ( George, 2005 ) . In add-on, in a sample of 101 doctors indiscriminately selected in a group of those monitored by a doctors Ã¢â¬Ë , found that 97 per centum of the 1 who antecedently had been in a 12-step plan further engaged in the plan in the monitoring period ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Research on the spiritualty function in the recovery procedure separate from professional direction has been through empirical observation modeled, and the dealingss between AA engagement and the result have been a topic of concern ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . In any instance, no uncertainty prevails to the fact that rank in AA ; characteristically seen to tie in with its religious foundation now has been used by 1000000s of people enduring depend ences and they all recognition plan for their recovery ( Paul, Mueller, David & A ; Teresa, 2001 ) . The 12-step experience develops a sense of communality, and this is different from the running conventional institutional context. It is, hence, the ground why this solidarity hails every bit critical to the plan Ã¢â¬Ës religious nature ( George, 2005 ) . The family Ã¢â¬Ës orientation ideally to common support facilitates a shared sense of single reclamation formalizing the behavioural demand of entire recovery and abstention known as keeping abstention. For nuts, the orientation to common support besides sustains the construction and unity of AA as a motion ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . Substance-impaired doctors have established a strong, supportive web via AA-related Caduceus groups in AA ( AA Services, 2002 ) . The clinical benefit of AA Ã¢â¬Ës plan has been in presentation in the controlled researches on enhanced result in intervention plans, on lowered demand for professi onal staffing in outpatient rehabilitation, and on intervention of dependence with psychiatric attention for persons with double diagnosings ( Paul, Mueller, David & A ; Teresa, 2001 ) . Surveies suggest that legion patients have a religious life sing their religious wellness every bit good as physical wellness as momentous, every bit good. On the other manus, people may keep greater religious demands in times of unwellness. A reappraisal of published surveies, systematic reappraisals, capable reappraisals and meta-analyses, analyzing the association between spiritualty and physical, health-related life, wellness and spiritual engagement, mental wellness, and other wellness results indicated that spiritualty and spiritual engagement associate with better wellness results, which includes get bying accomplishments, health-related life quality and greater length of service ( even in the event of terminal unwellness ) and depression, self-destruction and less anxiousness ( George, 2005 ) . Several surveies show that turn toing the demands of the patient particularly the religious 1s enhance recovery from certain unwellnesss. Acknowledging, back uping and spoting the reli gious patients Ã¢â¬Ë demands can be done in a straightforward mode ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Conversely, when people consult doctors in finding the intervention and cause of an unwellness, they at times may besides seek seeking replies to some inquiries that medical scientific discipline do non supply an reply for illustration, Ã¢â¬Å" Why an unwellness happens to a peculiar person? Ã¢â¬ legion patients rely on a religious model every bit good as spiritual beliefs naming on religious or spiritual attention suppliers to give them replies to the several inquiries ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Indeed, over the old ages in history, spiritualty and faith and the medical pattern have been intertwined. Because of this, many faiths embrace the attention of the ill as a primary mission, and legion universes Ã¢â¬Ë taking establishments of medical specialty have religious or spiritual roots ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . Therefore, the twelve-step plan has been unusually celebrated and serves as one of the most supported attacks in handling alcohol addiction ( George, 2005 ) . The twelve-step plan is a set of rules that guide a patient. The plan outlines a class of action to be of usage in the recovery from irresistible impulse, unnatural behavioural jobs or an dependence. The plan was originally developed by Alcoholics Anonymous ( AA ) . It was ab initio a method of recovery for patients enduring alcohol addiction. The Twelve Steps foremost came to be published in a book Ã¢â¬Å" Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered from Alcoholism in 1939 ( AA Services, 2002 ) Ã¢â¬ . The method so came to be adopted ; going the foundation of the ideal twelve-step plans developed subsequently for case Cocaine Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, Co-Dependents Anonymous, Debtors Anonymous and Overeaters Anonymous ( AA Services, 2005 ) . As the American Psychological Association summarizes, the procedure is all about: aÃâ ? Admiting the fact that one can non is non under control of his or her dependence or irresistible impulse ; aÃâ ? Acknowledging a power, which is greater and that can supply strength aÃâ ? Examining past mistakes utilizing he aid of a patron aÃâ ? Making amendments to the several mistakes aÃâ ? Learning how to populate a new and better life with a freshly developed behaviour aÃâ ? Helping other people enduring from the same irresistible impulses or dependences The Twelve-step methods ideally have been celebrated adopted in turn toing a assortment of substance maltreatment and other jobs associating to dependence. Over 200 organisations known as families with a planetary rank and holding 1000000s employ the twelve-step rules in their recovery procedure. Narcotics Anonymous formation was by nuts who did non hold extended dealingss to the intoxicant dependence particulars. Similar penchants associating to the nuts Ã¢â¬Ë drug of pick besides led to the start of Cocaine Anonymous, Pills Anonymous, Marijuana Anonymous and the Crystal Meth Anonymous ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Behavioral issues for case irresistible impulse for, and/or dependence to, sex, billboard, gaming, nutrient and work are besides under reference in legion other families for case as Overeaters Anonymous, Workaholics Anonymous, Gamblers Anonymous, Sexual Compulsives Anonymous, Debtors Anonymous. Auxiliary groups for case Al-Anon and Nar-Anon, for household members of nuts and alkies, are portion of a response in usage to the intervention of dependence as a disease, which is enabled by household systems ( George, 2005 ) . The Twelve Traditions besides accompany the new and adept Twelve Steps. The Traditions give guidelines for single, group administration ( AA Services, 2005 ) . They were started in AA in assisting with the declaration of struggles in the Fieldss of fundss, promotion, and faith. Most twelve-step families adopted the developed rules for their administration ( Paul, Mueller, David & A ; Teresa, 2001 ) . The Twelve Traditions of AA include: aÃâ ? Our public assistance should be foremost ; personal recovery is dependent upon the AA integrity aÃâ ? For the group intent, there is merely one ultimate authorization, which is a loving God. Leaderships are merely sure retainers and do non regulate aÃâ ? The lone demand for AA rank is a strong single desire to halt imbibing aÃâ ? Each group must be independent except in issues that affect other groups or AA aÃâ ? Each group has a individual and primary intent, which is transporting its message to the agony alky aÃâ ? An AA group should ne'er finance, impart or back the AA name to any endeavor, lest issues of prestigiousness, money, and belongings diverts us from the chief intent aÃâ ? Every AA group should be to the full self-supporting, and diminutions outside parts aÃâ ? Alcoholics Anonymous must stay non-professional forever. However, the service centres can or may every bit good employ distinguishable workers aÃâ ? AA, hence, must ne'er be organized ; but can make commissions or service boards responsible to those they serve straight aÃâ ? Alcoholics Anonymous do non hold an sentiment on some outside issues ; hence, the AA name must ne'er be presented in public contention aÃâ ? The public dealingss policy footing on attractive force and non publicity ; we required to keep personal namelessness ever at the degree of movies, imperativeness, and wireless aÃâ ? Anonymity is the foundation of all the traditions, of all time maintaining usage to remind and put rules in front of personalities ( AA Services, 2005 ) . In the twelve-step plan, the construction of worlds is symbolically represented in dimensions including religious, physical, and mental ( AA Services, 2002 ) . The jobs the person, groups trade with are known to attest themselves in several dimensions. For alkies, the ideal physical dimension is described best by the allergy-like reaction in the organic structure, which consequences in the irresistible impulse to utilizing substances after the preliminary usage ( George, 2005 ) . For single groups non related to maltreatment of substance, the physical manifestation is more varied with elements such as distractibility, compulsive billboard, eating upsets, hyperactivity, hypomania, dysfunctional enabling, insomnia, deficiency of motive, crossness, passion, panic onslaughts, indolence, psychosomatic unwellnesss, cunctation, self-injury, hapless impulse control, and suicide efforts. The statement in the initial Measure that the individual is Ã¢â¬Å" powerless Ã¢â¬ over the substance-a buse that relates to behavior at issue connotes the deficiency of control over the single irresistible impulse prevailing for long despite any negative effects, which may be endured ( AA Services, 2002 ) . The mental compulsion in the description is the cognitive procedures, which causes the individual to reiterate the behaviour after some clip abstaining ; either cognizing that the ulterior consequence will be a developed inability to halt or run under the interior psychotic belief that the consequence ideally will be changing. The description in the initial Step of the life of the individual enduring from alcohol addiction or nut as Ã¢â¬Å" unwieldy Ã¢â¬ , connotes the deficiency of pick that the single head of the nut affords sing whether to utilize once more ( AA Services, 2005 ) . The religious dimension unwellness, comparatively known as Ã¢â¬Å" religious malady, Ã¢â¬ is considered in the several twelve-step single groups to be self-centeredness. The theoretical account is non intended to be explained scientifically, it is merely an single position that twelve-step plan discovery utile ( George, 2005 ) . The procedure of working the plan stairss is intended to wholly replace egoism with a turning willingness for selflessness, moral consciousness and unselfish constructive action ( AA Services, 2002 ) . In twelve-step groups, it is referred to as a spiritual experience or comparatively, religious waking up ( AA Services, 2005 ) . This should non be mistaken with catharsis, bring forthing dramatic alterations. In twelve-step families, the construct of Ã¢â¬Å" religious waking up Ã¢â¬ is inferred as developing, most often over a long period. It is suggested that single members on a regular basis attend meetings joined by other members who portion their recovery job. In conformity with the initial Step, twelve-step groups make accent on self-admission by single members of the job they intend to retrieve from ( AA Services, 2005 ) . It is in this spirit that single members identify themselves frequently along with their job admittance for case Ã¢â¬Å" Hi, I Ã¢â¬Ëm Mike and I Ã¢â¬Ëm an nut. Ã¢â¬ Such catch phrases widely associate with such support groups usually. Some meetings are popular as dual-identity groups promoting attending from peculiar demographics ( George, 2005 ) . Some countries have, for case, work forces Ã¢â¬Ës groups ; homosexuals, sapphic, adult females Ã¢â¬Ës groups ; and transgendered groups. There are besides in some, novice Ã¢â¬Ës groups and Ã¢â¬Å" old-timer Ã¢â¬ groups restricting who portions, or speaks in these meeting, by the length of clip each member has in that family ( AA Servi ces, 2002 ) . Alcoholics Anonymous is, hence, ranked high in its effectivity. It is known to be one of the largest of the established twelve-step plans ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . The Narcotics Anonymous comes 2nd with the twelve-step members who recover from dependence coming from drugs or intoxicant ( AA Services, 2005 ) . The bulk of plans, nevertheless, combat the unwellnesss and non the dependence. For case, the 3rd twelve-step plan, known as Al-Anon, assists members of a household of nuts and alkies ( George, 2005 ) . About 20 per centum of plans engage in dependence recovery, the staying 80 per centum address several of jobs stretching from debt to depression ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . It would be an tremendous mistake presuming the effectivity of twelve-step attacks at handling jobs because they are certainly effectual. From its critics, Alcoholics Anonymous ( AA ) is merely a placebo, non even able to vie with more effectual interventions. They besides refer it as a unsafe cult. For its protagonists AA having the Lasker Award ( America Ã¢â¬Ës highest award in the medical field for advancement ) is adequate to warrant the procedure. George ( 2005 ) argues that because detoxified alcoholic persons relapse often, the psychological professions as good those from medical do non hold an outstanding record in the handling of alcohol addiction. Over the long-run, many of what has been in pattern to handle alcohol addiction professionally is what can be termed as a placebo ( AA Services, 2005 ) . On the first note, remedy from dependence of all sort does non come via psychodynamic penetration. In a survey of Harvard work forces done late, 26 alkies received 5000 hours of psychotherapeutics, with an norm of 200 hours per adult male. Merely a individual adult male recovered from alcohol addiction. Life-saving detoxification is besides non effectual for long in managing alcohol addiction ( AA Services, 2002 ) . As Mark Twain quipped, Ã¢â¬ËI found discontinuing smoking so easily after making it 20 times Ã¢â¬Ë . This is the same for alcohol addiction. Indeed, long-run researches show that waiting for intervention ( a pla cebo therapy signifier ) is every bit effectual as the detoxification attack. Additionally, cognitive behavior therapy is non peculiarly efficient since it works less good. Linda and Mark Ã¢â¬Ës surveies of developing alkies and assisting them return to command imbibing [ 8 ] became celebrated globally for old ages until patients in their survey were followed after a 10-year grade and found as still fared no better than the research controls. In the last 20 old ages, there are two drugs holding made clinicians in the field of alcohol addiction hopeful including naltrexone and acamprosate ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . However, many surveies indicate that they are merely successful in the short term footing. Conversely, with 15 old ages holding passed, the long-run researches that could turn out the efficaciousness of the several interventions are still undone ( George, 2005 ) . The grounds for the professional therapy failure in forestalling the eventual backsliding, and, hence, changing the natural alcohol addiction history, are two times. First, there is a clasp that drug dependence in human existences ne'er rest in our cerebral mantle. The clasp of dependence of any sort on the human heads lies in the reptilian encephalon. The clasp emanates from regular, cellular alterations in mesencephalon karyon for case the superior tegmentum and karyon accumbens ( George, 2005 ) . Finally, the malleability loss of neural response in the two centres renders abstinence unachievable and holds down the self-control. Therefore, you can understand why the drug does non assist and why AA comes in as a better replacement ( AA Services, 2002 ) . The 2nd ground that frequently professional intervention f ails in forestalling the backsliding in alcohol addiction is similar to the backsliding in diabetes. Change in the clinical class in diabetes and alcohol addiction is merely accomplishable by backsliding bar ( Paul, Mueller, David & A ; Teresa, 2001 ) . Lady Macbeth Ã¢â¬Ës a long helping doctor quotes Ã¢â¬ËTherein the single patient is responsible in ministering to herself Ã¢â¬Ë . There are several factors normally present in forestalling backsliding for most dependences ( George, 2005 ) . The factors, which assistance in the bar of backsliding, are ritual dependence on a new love relationships, viing behavior, and deepened spiritualty ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . Normally, two factors must be present for the bar of a backsliding to happen. The ground that the factors are effectual is that likely unlike many of the professional interventions, these factors do non work in the creative activity of decreased imbibing or impermanent abstention. They work to consequence the bar of backsliding ; and, hence, like the self-administered insulin in patients enduring diabetics, they should be used for a drawn-out continuance. This holds all to the construct of utilizing AA in the intervention other depending on the medical substances ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Alcoholics Anonymous, merely like many personal trainers, facilitates motivation from without, hence, proposing that clients return once more to the same plan modus operandi. In AA, members are advised to happen a patron to see and telephone frequently. They are advised to Ã¢â¬Ëwork the stairss Ã¢â¬Ë and ever prosecute in the proviso of the service ( George, 2005 ) . Each of the activities is dedicated in supplying a day-to-day nonvoluntary reminder with everything hitting the head that intoxicant is an enemy, and ne'er will be a friend. The activities provide supervising from the external supervisors, or in the linguistic communication of AA Ã¢â¬Ëalways maintaining the memory green Ã¢â¬Ë . However, AA besides comprehends that compulsory supervising is tremendous and works best when it is by single pick. George ( 2005 ) adds to this fact by stating that people suffer under the rigorous regulations of a manager, but they ever evade prohibitions of which they do non O.K. ( Paul, Mueller, David & A ; Teresa, 2001 ) . Second, it is critical to happen a replacement dependence or comparatively known as a viing behavior for any sort of dependence ( AA Services, 2002 ) . One can non easy give up a wont particularly without holding another thing to make and hedge practising the same behaviour ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . For case, Antabuse, prescribed frequently because it makes the alcohol consumption sickening, fails largely to bring around the dependence because though it may be taking alcohol off, Antabuse has no replacing and finally the nut stops the medical specialty and it does non, hence, aid ( George, 2005 ) . Nevertheless, viing dependences for case, dolophine hydroc hloride care in maltreatment of diacetylmorphine facilitate bar of backsliding because they offer a replacement ( a carrot or a stick ) . AA besides was initiated on the construct that, in contrast, imprisonment as a method of cut downing backsliding to heroin maltreatment has ne'er worked ( Richard, 2001 ) . This is because penalty entirely does non alter deep-rooted wonts. Alcoholics Anonymous acknowledges what all behaviourists know, and it understands what many parents and physicians forget that such dastardly wonts taking to dependences necessitate replacements ( George, 2005 ) . Alcoholics Anonymous on this note provides supervising every bit good as a gratifying agenda of service activities every bit good as societal penchants in the presence of now-healed alkies, peculiarly at times of high hazard given an illustration of vacations ( Paul, Mueller, David & A ; Teresa, 2001 ) . On the same statement, AA operates on the thought that new love relationships are critical to full recovery. It seems critical for ex-addicts to bond with other individuals who they have ne'er met or hurt in the yesteryear and to who they do non hold deep emotionally dealingss or in debt ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Indeed, it is supportive of persons assisting them bond with other individuals who they can assist and have aid. Alcoholic Anonymous meetings comparatively are full of sober former pub-crawlers that the nuts befriend but individuals who one does non owe ( George, 2005 ) . On the same note, an AA patron, similar to a new partner, promotes the bar of a backsliding better than many other enduring members whom they torture for old ages. The common characteristic in recovery from any signifier of dependence is the find of spiritualty. This is intensely controversial and surges a het argument. Inspirational, selfless person, group rank every bit good as belief in a greater power than Ã¢â¬Ëme Ã¢â¬Ë seem critical to recovery from all sorts of dependence. In the Religious Experience, William foremost articulated the relationship between a recovery from alcohol addiction and spiritual transitions. As Carl Jung directed the AA cofounder Bill Wilson: The cosmopolitan theoretical account that Frank describes in his plants, Healing and Persuasion, for effectual psychotherapeutics resembles religious mending closely ( AA Services, 2002 ) . In Frank Ã¢â¬Ës theoretical account, the therapist should hold the ideal position ( for illustration a few old ages of abstention ) , be equipped with legion unambiguous conceptual theoretical accounts of the debatable issues ( for illustration, AA Ã¢â¬Ës Big Book ) and must make in the patient remedy anticipation ( Richard, 2001 ) . Alcoholics Ã¢â¬Ë Anonymous assemblies, after all, are the topographic points across the Earth, which are populated dumbly by alkies with soberness ( Paul, Mueller, David & A ; Teresa, 2001 ) . Finally, Frank argues that in group therapy complete healing came from people caring for one another, non oneself. The Twelfth Step of AA delivers a message of mending. But there are other grounds that in the ideal dependences spiritualty is critical for bar of backsliding ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . First, there is a ample difference between a connexion of mending in religious communities and with a hierarchal clinical psychologist or spiritual leader ( George, 2005 ) . In autocratic faith every bit good as in medical specialty, the wise priest or physician asks the sinful, unenlightened patients or ill to wallow in dependence alleviating their past losingss and cholers. In contrast AA and other ideal democratic religious communities have a flat playing land. One of the Akron rummies in the early yearss, to whom Dr. Bob brought their message of retrieving from alcoholic, expressed the reciprocality good that people speaking to him wanted to assist him, and his pride prevented him from listening to them ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Second, spiritualty influences single behaviours, non through ground but by its emotion entreaty. Four central surveies have provided cogent evidence that, after control of variables like intoxicant ingestion prohibition, spiritual engagement when the younger coevals reduces coffin nail ingestion and intoxicant when at grownup coevals ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . Religious prohibition of usage of intoxicant ( for case Church of jesus christ of latter-day saintss in Islam in Saudi Arabia and Utah ) has been all along successful ( George, 2005 ) . In contrast, prohibition against intoxicant ingestion by the authorities has been less effectual ( for illustration, prohibition in America in the 1920s and in the 1990s in Soviet Union ) . Third, alkies and nuts unlike most evildoers are non raging ( Monica & A ; Scott, 2000 ) . Alcoholics have inflicted tremendous hurting frequently every bit good as hurt on others. Therefore, when sober, the nut may see guilt from the anguish, which they inflict on others ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Even though a hapless tranquillizer and an antidepressant, intoxicant are likely the most powerful solvent ideally for a guilty scruples, which modern pharmacological medicine has devised. Therefore, absolution from guilt arbitrated by a Ã¢â¬Ëpower more than ourselves Ã¢â¬Ë generates an option to alcohol going a critica l portion of the alky Ã¢â¬Ës procedure in mending ( George, 2005 ) . Finally, spiritualty, for case human fond regard Ã¢â¬â both arbitrated by the temporal lobe and limbic circuitry may be a worthy replacing for drugs ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . In other words, faith and spiritualty present a replacement to the high facilitated by drugs. Religion, Marx Ã¢â¬Ës Ã¢â¬Ëthe people Ã¢â¬Ës opiate Ã¢â¬Ë and Jung Ã¢â¬Ës spiritus, perchance will be an indirect manner, which we have of actuating our limbic encephalon every bit good as its endorphins. However, efficaciousness of AA and information on the AA efficaciousness is difficult to acquire. First, as an establishment, AA is uninterested in the field of research ( Richard, 2001 ) . Second, because of unconscious competition and differences, medical research workers from several bookmans sometimes have difficult times in the appraisal of AA without prejudice ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Finally, in the procedure of their chronic upset, nuts and alkies come across many, diverse intercessions, at the same time. Therefore, unlike the instance with most drug tests, there is no absolute manner that one can carry on a controlled survey ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . Until recent times, it was non clear whether AA attending resulted to abstinence or whether go toing AA was merely a manifestation of greater conformity with therapy or abstention. The overall grounds, however that AA works as a better Ã¢â¬Ëcure Ã¢â¬Ë is converting ( George, 2005 ) . First, multiple surveies, which jointl y involved more persons, suggest that absolute and effective clinical results are correlated significantly with frequence of go toing AA, with holding a patron, with chairing meetings, and with battle in a Twelve-Step work. Second, for 35 old ages I have been Director of the Study of Adult Development. From consequences in a community survey, half of the sample abused intoxicant until they died or until present. There were few clear differences separating the work forces accomplishing stable abstention from the 1s who remained alkies in a chronic province ( Monica & A ; Scott, 2000 ) . Poor instruction, multi-problem, low IQ did non place the sample population that would neglect in accomplishing stable abstention. Nor did hazard factors copiousness for alcohol addiction, for case alcoholic heredity, young person hyperactivity and sociopathic behavior, endure in foretelling the chronic province ( George, 2005 ) . However, it was singular that the sample population in the satisfactory result groups indicated go toing at least 20 times as many meetings of AA as the work forces in the hapless result take parting groups ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Another multimillion-dollar survey, referred to as Project Match compared the diverse effects of interventions upon alcoholic patients geting at several decisions ( George, 2005 ) . Project Match indicated that in the event of the first twelvemonth AA as a intervention attack was every bit effectual as the professional options including motivational sweetening therapies and cognitive behavioural therapies. Surely, AA in some degrees was better than the cognitive, behavioural therapy. On the other manus, the Match followup besides indicated that in malice of the original intervention arm ( motivational, Twelve Steps or cognitive behavioral ) the more meetings held by AA and single attending, the better the result ( Richard, 2001 ) . However, there is a Ã¢â¬Ëscientific Ã¢â¬Ë inquiry associating to AA efficaciousness. Even with cogent evidence that AA cures alcohol addiction, what is the degree of its safety? The inquiry aims at turn toing the AA side effects. Indeed, AA has its ideal disparagers and critics sing its operations. Designed to act upon the reptilian encephalon, the emotional linguistic communication and the rhetoric of the spiritualty of AA usher, journalists every bit good as other societal scientists fear that AA is a cult ( George, 2005 ) . Cults can take to development every bit good as instances of demagogy, and this is one large shooting used in knocking AA. They argue that faith can ensue in exclusion, war and dogmatism. Individual alkies who attend incompatible AA single groups or ally themselves with inopportune patrons sometimes are informants of horror narratives sing the family ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Many of the beliefs that members in AA express sing alcohol addiction, are similar t o the dogmas of any tradition non related to scientific discipline. For case, if work forces are followed for 40 old ages it is clear that alcohol addiction is non as usually expressed as a Ã¢â¬Ëprogressive disease Ã¢â¬Ë . Something reconstructing the safety of AA is that as an establishment, it is non a faith. The establishment has incorporated rules intentionally in an effort to avoid cultic maltreatment. Religions for case patriotism draw circles, which draw some, people out and, hence, non first-class when it comes to affairs of recovery. On the other manus, Alcoholics Anonymous draws circles, which draw others in and, hence a favourite. The AA religious foundation came from the rational experience of work forces who were profoundly leery of all faiths. These work forces, William with his Religious Experience Varieties, Carl Jung passing his prescription ideally known as Ã¢â¬ËSpiritus contra spiritus Ã¢â¬Ë and cofounder of AA, Dr. Robert Smith, of whom each pupils of what was mending between the prevailing faiths ( George, 2005 ) . This sort of spiritualty normally develops to love, humbleness, tolerance and awe toward the planetary existence. These are several qualities intensifying human relationships ( AA Services, 2002 ) . Surely, AA is non all about faith but more deep into other constructs. The Alcoholics Anonymous foreword categorically states: Ã¢â¬Å" Alcoholics Anonymous is practically non a spiritual establishment. Ã¢â¬ The lone rank demand is a desire to abstain from imbibing. Alcoholics Anonymous, hence, passes the universality trial so critical in separating safe spiritualty and dividing it from dissentious faith, in the facet that spiritual strong belief does non hold the capacity to forestall rank to AA ( Richard, 2001 ) . Over the last two decennaries, AA rank increased to an estimated 10-fold in Hindu India, in Catholic Spain and in Buddhist Japan. Membership has besides been on the rise in unbelieving Russia exponentially ( Paul, Mueller, David & A ; Teresa, 2001 ) . Per capita, there are an estimated three times as legion AA groups in El Salvador and Costa Rica as in the America ( Monica & A ; Scott, 2000 ) . Today, at least one-third of members from AA are adult females and an estimated one-fourth are flatly less than 31 old ages old. Scholarly research fails in the designation of clear personality differences among the legion alkies who are non attenders of AA. Neither instruction nor societal category, neither mental wellness nor extraversion distinguishes the 1s utilizing AA from the 1 who do non ( AA Services, 2002 ) . The lone variable that systematically distinguishes AA members from nuts and alkies who attend professional intervention centres merely is that members of AA tend to hold had more alcohol addiction symptoms. It is of virtue noting, however, some of the peculiar ways that AA as an establishment has avoided to developing to a cult ( Monica & A ; Scott, 2000 ) . First, from the beginning, AA has developed no clear differentiation between Ã¢â¬Ëthe family of AA Ã¢â¬Ë and the supreme God. There has been a tacit, if non explicit, permission ever of replacing the construct of God, with the single Ã¢â¬Ëhome group Ã¢â¬Ë . On the other manus, the AA spiritualty does non hold the capacity to vie with medical specialty ( Richard, 2001 ) . Alcoholic Anonymous work published in books is clear that it is Ã¢â¬Ëabsolutely incorrect striping any alky of medicine that are capable of relieving or commanding other disenabling emotional jobs, every bit good as a physical job ( AA Services, 2002 ) Ã¢â¬Ë and that Ã¢â¬Ëno member of AA as an establishment, dramas physician ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) Ã¢â¬Ë . Additionally, some worry that the establishment like cults, exerts control of the human hea d and removes freedom. Mark, a New York head-shrinker, defined cults as groups of personal appeal with Ã¢â¬Ëcharacteristics of a high societal coherence degree, a profoundly held belief system and a powerful influence on its single members Ã¢â¬Ë behaviour ( George, 2005 ) Ã¢â¬Ë . As Mark noted, this is true of AA as an alcoholic recovery establishment. Finally, another difference between all AA and cults is their governing construction. For cults, their features are by magnetic leaders holding infallible powers every bit good as an bossy construction of administration ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . In AA Ã¢â¬Ëleaders Ã¢â¬Ë trust is been held as retainers ; they ne'er govern ( George, 2005 ) Ã¢â¬Ë . Most of the AA places of service are unpaid and legion occupations are rotated often so that the power consolidation ne'er occurs ( AA Services, 2005 ) . The AA organisational chart evolving is a pyramid on its caput. Responsibility places within AA are in definition, Ã¢â¬Ëservice as holding no authorization ( Richard, 2001 ) Ã¢â¬Ë and the procedures of AA statute law are democratic to a mistake. In AA, the amusive thing is that unlike in faiths and cults, they respect the minority sentiments ( AA Services, 2002 ) . A unfavorable judgment of cults, every bit good as AA, is that they hearten dependance. And so it is critical to distinguish the dependance that is AA engendered from the dependance that is cults engendered. Dependences in several countries weaken or strengthen the persons ( AA Services, 2002 ) . This is because a human being is weakened by dependance on debris nutrient, coffin nails, or slot machines. Finally, AA Ã¢â¬Ës Twelve Traditions are a contemplation of the laminitis Bill Wilson Ã¢â¬Ës 20-year cleft to encompass spiritualty protecting AA from developing into a cult ( Mark & A ; Robert, 1996 ) . Alcoholics Anonymous, as the instance with the early Christian Church, strives to remain hapless successfully ad, hence, works out suitably ( George, 2005 ) . Decisions In general, the function of spiritualty in alcohol addiction recovery relates to the persons Ã¢â¬Ë publicity of achieving a meaningful life. The attacks to recovery, for case usage of speculation, spiritual revivalism, and household therapy, represent the value of extract of the person and personal significance into the procedure of recovery. All the several attacks associate with the factors termed nonspecific frequently underlying the healing effects apparent across diverse psychotherapeutics schools. It is, nevertheless, arguable that religious influence is one of the major constructs on recovery in Alcoholics Anonymous. It is a procedure affecting the 12 stairss as illustrated in this treatment. It is absolute that spiritualty is peculiarly a latent concept ; one inferred from legion constituent dimensions, for case societal psychological science, intervention result and neurophysiology research. Mechanisms that relate to its function in recovery publicity in AA are in treatmen t from diverse position and use to single otherwise. What is clear is that Alcoholics Anonymous ( AA ) being an old pattern has been first-class and successful and continues to keep land as an attack to cut down alcohol addiction.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Parents and Their Children Robert HaydenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Those Winter SundaysÃ¢â¬ and Adrienne RichÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Woman Mourned by DaughtersÃ¢â¬ are poems that are based on only one parent. In Ã¢â¬Å"Those Winter SundaysÃ¢â¬ the parent is a father. In Ã¢â¬Å"A Woman Mourned by DaughtersÃ¢â¬ the parent is a deceased mother. While reading both poems it is clear that both speakers show regard to their parents; however, there is a concrete difference portraying both speakers with different attitudes towards their parents. In both poems the speakers reflect on memories from the past that involve their parents. In Ã¢â¬Å"Those Winter SundaysÃ¢â¬ the speaker is a child that treated his or her father badly. In Ã¢â¬Å"A Woman Mourned by DaughtersÃ¢â¬ the speakers are the departed motherÃ¢â¬â¢s daughters. The speaker in Ã¢â¬Å"Those Winter SundaysÃ¢â¬ was reminiscing about everything that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s father did for their family, in describing a Sunday Ã¢â¬Å"Sundays too my father got up early / and put his clothes on in the blueback cold, / then with cracked hands that ached / from labor in the weekday weather made / banked fires blazeÃ¢â¬ (Hayden 1-5). The speakers in Ã¢â¬Å"A Woman Mourned by DaughtersÃ¢â¬ were reminiscing about how their mother raised them and how they treated their mother. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing could be enough. / You breathe upon us now through solid assertions / of yourselfÃ¢â¬ (Rich 21-24). The daughters realize, now their mother is gone, that all the things the mother taught them are forced on them more than it was when she was living. The parents in both poems are equally strict but they also have distinguishing characteristics. Ã¢â¬Å"Cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weatherÃ¢â¬ (Hayden 3-4). This made it obvious that the father in Ã¢â¬Å"Those Winter SundaysÃ¢â¬ was a working man. Ã¢â¬Å"You are puffed up in death / like a corpse pulled from the sea; / we groan beneath your weightÃ¢â¬ (Rich 8-10). The mother in Ã¢â¬Å"A Woman Mourned by DaughtersÃ¢â¬ is departed but... Free Essays on Parents And Their Children Free Essays on Parents And Their Children Parents and Their Children Robert HaydenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Those Winter SundaysÃ¢â¬ and Adrienne RichÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Woman Mourned by DaughtersÃ¢â¬ are poems that are based on only one parent. In Ã¢â¬Å"Those Winter SundaysÃ¢â¬ the parent is a father. In Ã¢â¬Å"A Woman Mourned by DaughtersÃ¢â¬ the parent is a deceased mother. While reading both poems it is clear that both speakers show regard to their parents; however, there is a concrete difference portraying both speakers with different attitudes towards their parents. In both poems the speakers reflect on memories from the past that involve their parents. In Ã¢â¬Å"Those Winter SundaysÃ¢â¬ the speaker is a child that treated his or her father badly. In Ã¢â¬Å"A Woman Mourned by DaughtersÃ¢â¬ the speakers are the departed motherÃ¢â¬â¢s daughters. The speaker in Ã¢â¬Å"Those Winter SundaysÃ¢â¬ was reminiscing about everything that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s father did for their family, in describing a Sunday Ã¢â¬Å"Sundays too my father got up early / and put his clothes on in the blueback cold, / then with cracked hands that ached / from labor in the weekday weather made / banked fires blazeÃ¢â¬ (Hayden 1-5). The speakers in Ã¢â¬Å"A Woman Mourned by DaughtersÃ¢â¬ were reminiscing about how their mother raised them and how they treated their mother. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing could be enough. / You breathe upon us now through solid assertions / of yourselfÃ¢â¬ (Rich 21-24). The daughters realize, now their mother is gone, that all the things the mother taught them are forced on them more than it was when she was living. The parents in both poems are equally strict but they also have distinguishing characteristics. Ã¢â¬Å"Cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weatherÃ¢â¬ (Hayden 3-4). This made it obvious that the father in Ã¢â¬Å"Those Winter SundaysÃ¢â¬ was a working man. Ã¢â¬Å"You are puffed up in death / like a corpse pulled from the sea; / we groan beneath your weightÃ¢â¬ (Rich 8-10). The mother in Ã¢â¬Å"A Woman Mourned by DaughtersÃ¢â¬ is departed but...
Monday, October 21, 2019
Battle of the River Plate - World War II The Battle of the River Plate was fought December 13, 1939, during World War II (1939-1945). With World War II looming, the German Deutschland-class cruiser Admiral Graf Spee was dispatched from Wilhelmshaven to the South Atlantic. On September 26, three weeks after hostilities commenced, Captain Hans Langsdorff received orders to begin commerce raiding operations against Allied shipping. Though classified as a cruiser, Graf Spee was the product the treaty restrictions placed on Germany after World War I which prevented the Kriegsmarine from building warships exceeding 10,000 tons. Utilizing a variety of new construction methods to save weight, Graf Spee was powered by diesel engines instead of the typical steam engines of the day. While this allowed it to accelerate more rapidly than most ships, it required the fuel to be processed and cleaned before use in the engines. The separation system for processing the fuel was placed aft of the funnel but above the ships deck armor. For armament, Graf Spee mounted six 11-inch guns making it much more powerful than a normal cruiser. This increased firepower led British officers to refer to the smaller Deutschland-class ships as pocket battleships. Royal Navy Commodore Henry Harwood1 heavy cruiser, 2 light cruisers Kriegsmarine Captain Hans Langsdorff1 pocket battleship Tracking Graf Spee Obeying his orders, Langsdorff immediately began intercepting Allied shipping in the South Atlantic and southern Indian Oceans. Having success, Graf Spee captured and sank several Allied vessels, leading the Royal Navy to dispatch nine squadrons south to find and destroy the German ship. On December 2, the Blue Star liner Doric Star succeeded in radioing a distress call before being taken by Graf Spee off South Africa. Responding to the call, Commodore Henry Harwood, leading the South American Cruiser Squadron (Force G), anticipated than Langsdorff would next move to strike the River Plate estuary. The Ships Clash Steaming towards the South American coast, Harwoods force consisted of the heavy cruiser HMS Exeter and the light cruisers HMS Ajax (flagship) and HMS Achilles (New Zealand Division). Also available to Harwood was the heavy cruiser HMS Cumberland which was refitting in the Falkland Islands. Arriving off the River Plate on December 12, Harwood discussed battle tactics with his captains and began maneuvers in search of Graf Spee. Though aware that Force G was in the area, Langsdorff moved towards the River Plate and was spotted by Harwoods ships on December 13. Initially unaware that he was facing three cruisers, he ordered Graf Spee to accelerate and close with the enemy. This ultimately proved a blunder as Graf Spee could have stood off and hammered the out-ranged British ships with its 11-inch guns. Instead, the maneuver brought the pocket battleship within the range of Exeters 8-inch and the light cruisers 6-inch guns. With the German approach, Harwoods ships implemented his battle plan which called for Exeter to attack separately from the light cruisers with the goal of splitting Graf Spees fire. At 6:18 AM, Graf Spee opened fire on Exeter. This was returned by the British ship two minutes later. Shortening the range, the light cruisers soon joined the fight. Firing with a high degree of accuracy the German gunners bracketed Exeter with their third salvo. With the range determined, they hit the British cruiser at 6:26, putting its B-turret out of action and killing all of the bridge crew except the captain and two others. The shell also damaged the ships communications network requiring conning instructions to be passed via a chain of messengers. Crossing in front of Graf Spee with the light cruisers, Harwood was able to draw fire off Exeter. Using the respite to mount a torpedo attack, Exeter was soon hit by two more 11-inch shells which disabled A-turret and started fires. Though reduced to two guns and listing, Exeter succeeded in striking Graf Spees fuel processing system with an 8-inch shell. Though his ship appeared largely undamaged, the loss of the fuel processing system limited Langsdorff to sixteen hours of usable fuel. Around 6:36, Graf Spee reversed its course and began laying smoke as it moved west. Continuing the fight, Exeter was effectively put out of action when water from a near miss shorted out the electrical system of its one functioning turret. To prevent Graf Spee from finishing off the cruiser, Harwood closed with Ajax and Achilles. Turning to deal with the light cruisers, Langsdorff returned their fire before withdrawing under another smokescreen. After diverting another German attack on Exeter, Harwood unsuccessfully attacked with torpedoes and suffered a hit on Ajax. Pulling back, he decided to shadow the German ship as it moved west with the goal of attacking again after dark. Following at a distance for the remainder of the day, the two British ships occasionally exchanged fire with Graf Spee. Entering the estuary, Langsdorff made a political error in making port at Montevideo in neutral Uruguay rather than the friendlier Mar del Plata, Argentina to the south. Anchoring a little after midnight on December 14, Langsdorff asked the Uruguayan government for two weeks to make repairs. This was opposed by British diplomat Eugen Millington-Drake who argued that under the 13th Hague Convention Graf Spee should be expelled from neutral waters after twenty-four hours. Trapped in Montevideo Advised that few naval resources were in the area, Millington-Drake continued to press for the ships expulsion publically while British agents arranged to have British and French merchant ships sail every twenty-four hours. This invoked Article 16 of the convention which stated: A belligerent war-ship may not leave a neutral port or roadstead until twenty-four hours after the departure of a merchant ship flying the flag of its adversary. As a result, these sailings held the German ship in place while additional forces were marshaled. While Langsdorff lobbied to for time to repair his ship, he received a variety of false intelligence which suggested the arrival of Force H, including the carrier HMS Ark Royal and battlecruiser HMS Renown. While a force centered on Renown was en route, in reality, Harwood had only been reinforced by Cumberland. Completely deceived and unable to repair Graf Spee, Langsdorff discussed his options with his superiors in Germany. Prohibited from allowing the ship to be interned by the Uruguayans and believing that certain destruction awaited him at sea, he ordered Graf Spee scuttled in the River Plate on December 17. Aftermath of the Battle The fighting off the River Plate cost Langsdorff 36 killed and 102 wounded, while Harwoods ships lost 72 killed and 28 wounded. Despite severe damage, Exeter made emergency repairs in the Falklands before undergoing a major refit in Britain. The ship was lost following the Battle of the Java Sea in early 1942. With their ship sunk, the crew of Graf Spee was interned in Argentina. On December 19, Langsdorff, seeking to avoid allegations of cowardice, committed suicide while lying on the ships ensign. Following his death, he was given a full funeral in Buenos Aires. An early victory for the British, the Battle of the River Plate ended the threat of German surface raiders in the South Atlantic. Sources Royal New Zealand Navy: Battle of the River PlateLangsdorff of the Graf Spee
Sunday, October 20, 2019
Hungergy Games Essays - Peeta Mellark, Frankie Laine Discography Hungergy Games I wake up screaming again. Its happened every night since Ive been back in district twelve. Back in this cold empty house, I never really called it home. The mockingjays are singing outside my window. I groan and press my pillow hard over my ears but I cant muffle the sound of the knock at my door so I reluctantly get up and answer it. I am surprised to see him, his blue eyes are still mesmerizing as ever but have grown more intense from all the pain and destruction they have been subjected to. The burns the seemed to take over a good portion of his face the last time I saw him have healed somewhat, but the scars wont ever fully go away. I have to say they make me feel closer to him, though Im not so sure why. Maybe because I know he has suffered as much if not more than I have these past couple of years and our scars seem to join us together. Peeta I am unsure what to say to him. They wouldnt let me leave until now he says I just came to check on you. You havent been answering your phone. I dont really feel like talking to anyone I say lowering my eyes to the floor. His gaze is too powerful but I have to admit I am glad to see him I have been so lonely and Haymitch isnt the best company or friend for that matter but he has grown on me in a way I cant explain. Maybe because I have weakness for helpless or broken people. Hey he says lifting my chin softly bringing me back to those eyes. He then smiles at me that smile that used to cross his face often before he was hijacked, and for the moment I feel that he is somewhat himself again. then we wont talk we spend the day in silence curled up on the floor with my head in his lap as he runs his fingers through my hair softly untangling the mats that have gone unbrushed for days. As night falls he motions toward the door and I grab his hand. Dont leave I say lightly The smile is quickly replaced by a concerned frown now it is he who lowers his gaze. Im not so sure thats a good idea I know you you wont hurt me. He stands not moving or looking up at me but I can tell what he is thinking. Fine! If you think you cant control yourself then just go! I run upstairs to my room and slam the door. I dont know why I got so mad at him. He was just being careful, but I felt angry at the thought that even now that the war is over, things can never be exactly the way they were before, and that gives President Snow a victory over me even in death. I climb into bed and start to sob. The door opens and he slowly lays down and puts his arms around me. You want me hear. Real or not real? he asks Real I tell him. I want you to stay with me. I dont know whats come over me. Im never good at expressing my feelings, but his warmth gives me chills and I realize I have missed his touch. He holds me closer and whispers in my ear Always Peeta holds me through the night but I can tell its hard for him because a few times he has to clutch the pillow tight and let the flash backs pass, but he never says a word or does anything to hurt me. I take a shower, get dressed and go outside. He is there digging a hole next to my house. His forehead parched with sweat, tassels of blonde curls sticking to it. His scars are more noticeable in the sunlight, but in no way does it take away from his charm. He is focused on what he is doing and he speaks to me without looking up from his work. I found these while I was taking a walk. I thought we could plant them for her. He says. I recognize the flowers right away. Primrose. The